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[技术] 如何制作蒸汽机

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发表于 2018-4-25 10:54:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
蒸汽机”这个词常常让人想起蒸汽机车或斯坦利汽轮机的图像,但这些机器比运输更多。 蒸汽机在两千年前最初以原始形式创建,已成为过去三个世纪的主要动力来源,蒸汽涡轮机现在已经被电机及油动引擎替代。 为了更好地了解蒸汽机工作中的物理力,请使用本文中介绍的方法之一,用普通家用材料建立自己的蒸汽机!
方法1制造汽水罐蒸汽机(适用于儿童)

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机



如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机

 楼主| 发表于 2018-4-25 10:55:43 | 显示全部楼层
3Push the bottom of the can out from the inside to flatten it. Most soda cans have a circular base that curves into the interior of the can. Push this out by flattening it with your fingers or using the bottom of a small glass or jar to smooth it.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


4Punch two holes on opposite sides of the can 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) from the top. You can use a paper punch for this, or you can make the holes with a nail and hammer. You will need a hole slightly larger than 1/8 inch (3.175 mm) in diameter.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


5Place a tea light candle in the center of the can. Crumple foil and place it under and around the candle to hold it in place. Tea light candles come in small tins, so the wax should not melt and spill into your aluminum can.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机

 楼主| 发表于 2018-4-25 10:56:35 | 显示全部楼层
6Wrap the center of a 6-to-8-inch (15.24-to-20.32 cm) piece of the copper tubing around a pencil 2 or 3 times to make a coil. The 1/8-inch tubing should bend easily around the pencil. You will need enough coiled tubing to stretch across the top of the can, plus about 2 extra inches (5.08 cm) of straight tubing on each side.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


7Insert the ends of the tubing through the holes in the can. Center the coil over the wick of the candle. Try to have about the same length of straight tubing sticking out of each side of the can.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


8Bend the ends of the tube with pliers to make 90-degree angles. Bend the straight sections of the tubing so that they go in opposite directions on each side of the can. Then, bend them again so that they reach below the base of the can. When you're done, you should have a coiled section of tubing in the middle over your candle that stretches downward into two opposite-facing "jets" on either side of the can.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机

 楼主| 发表于 2018-4-25 10:57:23 | 显示全部楼层
9Set the can in the bowl of water with the tubing ends submerged. Your "boat" should float comfortably. If the tubing ends don't quite sit below the water line, try weighing the can down slightly, but be careful not to sink it.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


10Fill the tubes with water. The easiest way to do this is to place one end in the bowl of water and suck through the other like a straw. Alternately, you can hold your finger over one end and hold the open end under a running faucet.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


11Light the candle. Over time, the water in the tubing will heat up and begin to boil. As it evaporates into steam, it will shoot out of the the "jets" of the tubing, causing the entire can to spin in the bowl.
Method 2 Making a Paint Can Steam Engine (For Adults)

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机

 楼主| 发表于 2018-4-25 10:58:18 | 显示全部楼层
1Cut a rectangular hole near the base of a gallon paint can. Mark a 15 x 5 cm rectangle horizontally on the side of the can near the base.
Note that for this paint can (and the other one you'll use), you'll want to ensure that the can contained only latex-based paint and that it has been thoroughly washed with soap and water before use.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


2Cut a 12 x 24 cm (4 & 2/3 x 9 1/3 in) piece of metal mesh. Bend 6 cm (about 2 & 1/3 inches) at either end of the 24 cm side down at a 90o angle. This should create a 12 x 12 cm square "platform" with two 6 cm "legs". Place this mesh inside the paint can, "legs" down, lining it up with the edges of the hole you cut.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


3Make a half-circle of holes along the lid's perimeter. Eventually, you'll burn coals inside this paint can to provide the heat for your steam engine. If these coals don't have a steady supply of oxygen, they won't be able to burn well. Allow ventilation by drilling or punching a series of holes in a half-circle pattern along edge of the can's lid.
These ventilation holes should ideally be bout 1 cm (4/10 in) in diameter.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机

 楼主| 发表于 2018-4-25 10:59:05 | 显示全部楼层
4Create a coil from copper tubing. Take about 6 m (about 19 & 1/2 feet) of soft copper tubing 1/4 inch (.64 cm) in diameter and measure 30 cm (11 & 8/10 inches) from one end. Starting from this point, wrap the tubing into five coils 12 cm (4 &3/4 inches) in diameter. Wind the remaining length of the tubing into about 15 coils 8 cm (3 & 1/6 in) in diameter. You should be left with about 20 cm (7 & 5/6 in) extra.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


5Run both ends of the coil through the lid ventilation holes. Bend both ends of the coil so that they're pointing upwards and insert each through one of the holes in the lid. If you don't quite have enough length in the tubing, you may need to unwind one of the coils slightly.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


6Insert the coil and charcoal into the paint can. Place the coil on top of the mesh platform. Fill the space around and inside the coil with charcoal briquettes. Close the lid tightly.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


 楼主| 发表于 2018-4-25 10:59:49 | 显示全部楼层
7Drill tubing holes in the smaller paint can. In the center of the quart-sized paint can's lid, drill a hole 1 cm (4/10 in) in diameter. On the side of the can, drill two 1 cm holes - one near the base and one above it near the lid.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


8Insert corked plastic tubing into the holes on the side of the smaller can. Use the ends of the copper tubing to bore holes in the center of two corks. Insert one 25 cm (9 & 5/6 in) piece of hard plastic tubing into one cork and one 10 cm (3 & 11/12 in) piece into the other so that they fit snugly and extend slightly from the other end of the cork. Insert the cork with the longer tubing into the bottom hole on the small can and the cork with the shorter tubing into the top hole. Secure the tubing in each cork with hose clamps.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


9Connect the larger can's tubing to the smaller can. Place the smaller can above the larger can with the corked tubing facing away from the larger can's ventilation holes. Use metallic tape to secure the tubing from the bottom cork to the tubing extending from the bottom of the copper coil. Then, secure the tubing from the upper cork to the tubing extending from the top of the coil in the same way.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机

 楼主| 发表于 2018-4-25 11:00:35 | 显示全部楼层
10Insert copper tubing through a junction box. Use a hammer and screwdriver to remove the center portion of a circular metallic electrical junction box. Secure an electrical cable clamp to the junction box with the retaining ring inside. Insert 15 cm (5 & 9/10 in) copper pipe 1/2 in (1.27 cm) in diameter through the cable clamp connector so that the tubing protrudes a few cm below the hole in the junction box. Blunt the edges of this end inward with a hammer. Insert this end of the pipe into the hole in the lid of the smaller can.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


11Insert the skewer into the dowel rod. Take a standard wooden barbecue skewer and insert it into one end of a 1.5 cm (6/10 in) hollow wooden dowel rod 3/8 in (.95 cm) in diameter. Place the dowel rod and skewer inside the copper pipe in the metal junction box so that the skewer points up.
The skewer and dowel rod will act as the "piston" when the engine is running. To make the motion of the piston easier to see, you might want to attach a small paper "flag" to the top.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


12Prepare the engine for operation. Remove the junction box assembly from the small upper can and fill the upper can with water, allowing it to drain into the copper coil until the can is about 2/3 full of water. Check all connectors for leaks and ensure all seals are tight. Secure the lids of both cans by tapping them with a hammer. Replace the junction box in its spot above the small upper can.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机

 楼主| 发表于 2018-4-25 11:02:04 | 显示全部楼层
13Run the engine! Crumple up pieces of newspaper and place them in the space enclosed by mesh at the bottom of the engine. When the charcoal has caught fire, allow the briquettes to burn for about 20-30 minutes. As they heat the water in the coil, steam should begin to build up in the upper can. When this steam reaches sufficient pressure, it will push the dowel and skewer piston upwards. Once sufficient pressure has been released, the piston will be pulled back down by gravity. Trim pieces off of the skewer as needed to reduce the weight of the piston - the lighter it is, the more frequently it will "pop" up. Try to whittle the skewer down to a weight such that the piston "runs" at a constant clip.
You can speed up the burning process by using a hair dryer to blow through the ventilation holes.

如何制作蒸汽机

如何制作蒸汽机


14Be safe. It probably goes without saying that this DIY steam engine requires careful handling and operation. Never run the steam engine indoors. Never run it around flammable material like dry leaves or overhanging trees. Only run it on a tough, non-flammable surface like concrete. If you're working with children, ensure an adult is present to supervise at all times. Do not children or teenagers approach the engine while the charcoal is burning. If you're ever not sure how hot the engine is, assume that it's too hot to touch.
Also, be sure that the steam is able to escape from the upper "boiler". If the piston becomes stuck for some reason, pressure can build up inside the small can. In a worst case scenario, this can cause the can to explode, which can be very dangerous.
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