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[技术] 木材气化炉制作

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发表于 2014-11-29 09:05:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
木材气化炉制作
世界近一半的人,现在还在使用固体燃料,如果上这近一半的人都能使用气化炉,那么我们人类应该会节约多少能源呀。
今天我来转个木材气化炉制作的帖子与大家分享。


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作
 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-29 09:06:07 | 显示全部楼层
This is not a small problem: inefficient cooking fires waste fuel, impoverishing both the planet and the person burning it; they inject startling quantities of soot, carbon dioxide, and worse greenhouse gases into the atmosphere; and they injure and kill the families who use them to cook and stay warm.
You can build a simple example of an appropriate technology that addresses all these problems: a biomass gasifier stove. It sounds more complicated than it is. Charring wood or other natural solid fuels releases gases that burn quite nicely. If you’ve ever watched a campfire closely, you’ve seen little jets of smoke erupt from the wood ahead of the flame. If conditions are perfect, a smoke jet catches fire and turns, briefly, into a tiny geyser of flame. A good gasification stove recreates these conditions reliably, generating smoke and moving air to produce these little fire geysers on demand.
There are many designs for efficient stoves, and gasification is only one way to boost the efficiency of a cooking fire. The wood gas stove in this article is an elegantly simple gasifier design called a TLUD stove (for top-lit updraft), also known as an inverted downdraft stove. If you don’t care how it looks, you can build it with a can opener, a punch, and a big rock. This design, which I’ve adapted from one I first saw on Instructables, is built around a 1-quart paint can. It easily boils enough water for a small pot of tea or a bowl of noodles, using nothing more than a fist-sized charge of scrap wood.
HOW IT WORKS
This TLUD stove works in batches: fill it up with twigs and woody bits, and light it from the top. As the fire burns, it makes a layer of hot coals, and as this burning mass descends into the can, it becomes starved for air. Enough oxygen comes up from below to keep the embers alight, but not enough to sustain a flame.
This charring layer slowly descends, releasing flammable gases as it goes — a process called pyrolysis. The hot gases rise to the top of the stove, where they are met by an inrush of preheated air and, if all goes well, combine completely with this air in a clean secondary burn that consumes the methane, soot, and carbon monoxide produced by the primary combustion.
When a TLUD is dialed in, it’s lovely: a layer of smoke hangs over the coal bed like a fog, and appears imprisoned by a gauntlet of inward-facing flame jets that rush in from the edges of the stove. While the stove is gasifying, it’s remarkably clean: there’s little or no smoke and only a faint odor, reminiscent of diesel or creosote. It leaves a trace of soot on your pot, compared to the heavy blackening an open fire imparts. And when your stove is done gasifying and the flame jets go out, clean charcoal remains in the stove.
This residual charcoal is a fringe benefit: not only can you use it for gunpowder (see MAKE Volume 13, page 54), but you can cook with it a second time in a clean-burning charcoal fire. You can also throw it into your compost and bury it. Called biochar, this buried charcoal enriches the soil and actually makes your carbon-neutral biomass fuel carbon-negative.
WARNINGS!
This stove produces and consumes carbon monoxide, a deadly poison. DO NOT EXPERIMENT WITH THIS STOVE INDOORS! Use it only outdoors.
Your stove will get hot. Using it on a wooden bench will leave a scorch mark. Use it on concrete, a tile you don’t care for (thermal shock may crack it), or on dirt you don’t mind scorching.


 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-29 09:08:05 | 显示全部楼层
Step #1: Prepare the backup block.

木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作

Open the paint can and drop the block of wood upright in the can. Mark the top edge of the can on the block.
Withdraw the block and make a parallel mark 3/8" below the first.
Cut a 5/8" deep slot between these lines. Precision is not critical: anything wider than 3/8" will do. A table saw is easiest, but a router or a handsaw and chisel will work too.
 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-29 09:12:04 | 显示全部楼层
Step #2: Mark the 1qt paint can.

木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作

Use marking dye or a Sharpie to lay down a stripe 3/4" from the bottom of the paint can.
Then, using either a surface gauge or a marking gauge, circumscribe a line 3/4" from the bottom of the can.
 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-29 09:14:30 | 显示全部楼层
Step #3: Punch 12 o'clock mark.PrevNext

木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作

Clamp the backup block to the edge of your workbench with its slot facing up. Slip the paint can over the end of the block and drop its rim into the slot.
Find the can seam, and punch a point on the scribed line about 1/2" away from the seam. This is your 12 o’clock mark.
 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-29 09:16:09 | 显示全部楼层
Step #4: Divide, scribe, and punch bottom of can.PrevNext

木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作

If you have a caliper, set your dividers to 1.075" (1/12th division of the can in chord sections); if you don’t, set your dividers to a hair more than 1-1/16". Following the scribed line, use the dividers to scribe marks to the right and left of the initial punch mark, marking as you go, to the far side.
When you reach the far side, your scribe marks may meet perfectly at 6 o’clock, but will likely over- or under-shoot each other. If you’ve “nailed it,” punch it down; otherwise, split the difference and punch between the two marks.
If the cumulative error is not excessive, punch the other marks back to the first punch mark; otherwise, adjust your dividers, re-scribe the 3/4" line, and use the same method from 6 and 12 o’clock to mark and punch the 9 and 3 o’clock positions. When you like what you see, punch down the 8 remaining marks. Perfect spacing is not critical.
To speed things up, you can approximate this method by wrapping a tape measure around the circumference, or you can avoid measuring entirely by downloading the drilling templates from makeprojects.com/v/27 and gluing them to the cans.
 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-29 09:17:08 | 显示全部楼层
Step #5: Drill the 1qt paint can.PrevNext

木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作

With the can resting on the backup, drill 1/2" holes at the punch marks. On your first hole, push only the tip of your step drill through the can and into the wood.
Remove the can from the backup block and put the drill tip back into the hole you just made. Drill straight into the wood past the 1/2" mark, creating a step-bit-shaped recess. (If you skip this step and drill straight through the can into the wood, your first hole will be egg-shaped.)
Next, steady the can with your hand, and allow it to “float” a little as the drill heads down its hole. Don’t force the drill: the step bit will cut effortlessly and cleanly.
When you’re done drilling, wash off your marking dye or any glue. (Steel marking dye comes off with brake cleaner, Sharpie with rubbing alcohol, and most glues with lighter fluid.) When this can gets hot, any remaining goo will be cooked on forever.
Using the can opener, remove the bottom of the paint can.
 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-29 09:18:16 | 显示全部楼层
Step #6: Mark and drill the 19oz food can.PrevNext

木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作

Using the methods described in Steps 2-5, apply your drilling template, or mark and scribe a line 1/2" from the open end of the 19oz can. Set your dividers to the chord division of 0.431" (a little less than 7/16"), and make 24 divisions at the 1/2" line.
Punch your marks, and drill twenty-four 1/4" holes. Remember to create a 1/4" step-drill recess in the wood before you drill all the holes.
Clamp the wood block vertically (a vise comes in handy here) and slide the 19oz can over the end.
 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-29 09:19:37 | 显示全部楼层
Step #7: Drill the bottom and snap cans together.PrevNext

木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作

Drill at least thirty 1/4" holes in the bottom of the can. You can do a fair job by eyeball if you follow the rings stamped into the bottom of the can. The important thing is that you create an open enough bottom for good airflow while not letting all your fuel fall out. Clean off any dye or glue remaining.
Snap the 19oz can open-side first into the paint can. They should make a satisfying press fit.
 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-29 09:20:55 | 显示全部楼层
Step #8: Mark and drill the standoff.PrevNext

木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作


木材气化炉制作

木材气化炉制作

Apply the template, or mark and scribe a line 3/4" from the top of the 12oz can, and set your dividers to the chord division of 0.767" (a hair past 49/64"). Scribe 16 divisions at the 3/4" line. Start anywhere: these cans are seamless.
Punch your marks and drill sixteen 1/2" holes. Clean off any dye or glue.
Turn the can upside down, and drill a ?" hole through the bottom of the can.
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