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[技术] 玻璃纤维造船工艺

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发表于 2013-9-30 08:48:40 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 1 Several variations may be used to build the form for use with the fiberglass planking method. The photos show a conventional method utilizing transverse molds or forms rather closely spaced, together with a form member for the stem area. The members are erected on a building form, accurately aligned, and braced to prevent movement. The transverse forms must be vertical, at right angles to the centerline, and centered. All members must be level with the set-up level or reference plane. The stem form is beveled on each side of the centerline, however, this may be varied as shown by the details provided.

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 2 Battens are usually provided for such areas as the sheer and keel area along the centerline, depending on the design. The ends of the sheer battens are trimmed to mate flush with the side of the stem form. Notches in the various transverse forms are cut to receive the sheer battens which continue to the transom form. In some cases, this sheer batten will remain in the completed hull, in which case, fastenings should not be driven through the members into any of the form structure which will not remain in the completed hull unless they can be removed in some way.
 楼主| 发表于 2013-9-30 08:49:04 | 显示全部楼层


玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 3 Portions of the form which will contact the fiberglass planking and are not to remain in the complete boat must be covered with a parting film or release agent. In the photos, the forms are being taped with cellophane tape, however, plastic sheeting can be used alternately. In some designs, the bulkheads and other members which will remain in the hull will not require this treatment. If none of the form members are to remain in the completed boat, the entire form can be covered with a plastic sheet.

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 4 Before applying the fiberglass planking, the hull form must be checked carefully for fairness. Use long battens around the formwork to spot any high or low areas which must be corrected. The fiberglass planking material comes in a roll from which lengths can be cut. Because the material develops a slight "set", the side facing the inside of the roll should be placed down onto the form
 楼主| 发表于 2013-9-30 08:49:29 | 显示全部楼层

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 5 Fiberglass planking lengths should be in single pieces. Cut the lengths oversize for trimming once in position. Spring a batten over the long ends and mark a line to determine where to trim the material.

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 6 Here the lengths are being trimmed with tin snips, however, an abrasive cut-off disc with a circular saw can be used as well. Before trimming to size however, it may be necessary to readjust a length by pulling out some staples and repositioning in order for the material to drape fairly around the contours
 楼主| 发表于 2013-9-30 08:49:46 | 显示全部楼层


玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 7 While staples can be used to keep the material in place, ice picks are another technique that work well providing enough can be obtained. Take care in the application not to pull the planking too tautly thereby causing dips between forms. With long lengths, it is desirable to have two or more people positioning planks.

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 8 The fiberglass planking conforms well to curvature and compounded surfaces. Use only as many staples as are required to hold the material in place, removing those which do not seem to be required. Align the strand along the lower edge of the sheer piece to correspond to the sheer line.
 楼主| 发表于 2013-9-30 08:50:04 | 显示全部楼层


玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 9 Joints between pieces of planking are not overlapped, but merely butted together. Any loose selvage should be pushed under so the surface is smooth and free of protruding glass fabric which will cause rubs and ridges once the resin is applied and allowed to cure.

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 10 The fiberglass planking is trimmed off at all extremities and made ready for the initial resin application. A final check should be made to assure that there are no sagging areas between forms or other unfair areas. Where they occur, remove staples, readjust the material, and restaple
 楼主| 发表于 2013-9-30 08:50:22 | 显示全部楼层


玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 11 The type of resin to use for the initial fiberglass planking coating is critical as well as the method of application. See notes elsewhere on the proper resin specification for this initial coating. A brush or roller can be used to apply the resin. Work from high areas to lower areas, using only enough resin as is required to coat the surface. It is not necessary nor desirable to completely saturate the material at this point because more resin will be applied to the inside after the hull is righted to complete the saturation. Any excess resin should be squeegeed off and discarded in order to avoid a brittle resin rich lay-up.

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 12 After applying the resin and allowing it to cure, the surface should be lightly sanded down to remove any protruding nubs and ridges. It is also desirable to wipe the surface down with solvent to remove any dust or dirt prior to making the lay-up. Always wear a mask when sanding. In some cases, the joints along the stem and keel will be reinforced with additional fiberglass laminate prior to applying the hull lay-up
 楼主| 发表于 2013-9-30 08:50:40 | 显示全部楼层


玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 13 The first layer of fiberglass material applied to the fiberglass planking is usually some type of chopped strand mat. The mat pieces are cut to rough oversize initially. Joints in adjacent mat pieces are usually butted, however, along areas such as the keel centerline, it is common for the mat on one side of the hull to overlap onto the mat of the other side for extra strength and fiberglass build-up. Where bunching of the mat occurs, tear V-shaped gores by hand in the material to prevent forming a double layer of mat at these points.

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 14 The pieces of mat are laid in position and folded back onto themselves to expose the underside surface. Resin is generously applied and then the mat is rolled or folded back in position. This way, the mat has resin starting the saturation from the backside thereby assuring thorough coverage
 楼主| 发表于 2013-9-30 08:50:58 | 显示全部楼层


玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 15 A brush or paint roller can be used to apply additional resin, and a mat roller then used to distribute and work the mat. Minor wrinkles and an even saturation are not critical at this point as this will be taken care of once the Continue layer of woven roving or cloth (on smaller boats) is applied. Note that the mat layer laps generously around the keel and stem areas thereby assuring that there is no joint in these areas.

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 16 Cloth or woven roving is usually applied over the mat and saturated with resin. Resin from the previously applied mat will help saturate the cloth or roving from the back side while more resin is brushed or rolled on from the topside


 楼主| 发表于 2013-9-30 08:51:15 | 显示全部楼层

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 17 The cloth or woven roving is saturated and smoothed out with a squeegee. Resin is worked from high areas to low areas pressing firmly on the squeegee to eliminate air bubbles and to assure even distribution. Any excess resin is squeegeed off and discarded when saturation is complete.

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 18 Overhanging material can be trimmed off prior to the resin setting up hard. However, this cannot be done too soon as it will pull the material. If the resin does set up before trimming, the excess material can be cut with an abrasive disc or sanded off with a disc sander. With all the laminate applied, the hull is ready for finishing
 楼主| 发表于 2013-9-30 08:51:32 | 显示全部楼层


玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 19 Lightly sand the hull after the laminate is applied to remove any protrusions, rubs, ridges, or other resin concentrations. Take care not to sand through the fiberglass material, however. Check the surface for any humps or dips, especially dishing between any form members. Sand the high areas more than the low areas to even out the surface somewhat if required.

玻璃纤维造船工艺

玻璃纤维造船工艺

Fig. 20 Resin putty filler is made to a trowelable consistency and applied to the surface using a broad knife, drywall trowel, wide putty knife, or other wide bladed screeding instrument. Keep the layer as thin as possible, applying less filler to high areas and more to lower areas. If the surface is quite unfair, an additional coat may be required, but it is still desirable to keep the filler coat to a minimum
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