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发表于 2011-6-16 12:17:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
BG 系列

BG Series
(BG-1 through BG-3)
The BG designation was introduced by the U.S. Army Air Force in 1942, and covered unmanned gliders loaded with bombs or an explosive warhead. The BG gliders were similar in concept to the Navy's Glomb.
Fletcher BG-1
After the USAAF had cancelled the order for the Fletcher PQ-11A radio-controlled target drone, ten of the PQ-11As under construction were completed as XBG-1 bomb gliders. In the XBG-1, the PQ-11A's engine was replaced by a 900 kg (2000 lb) bomb. The XBG-1 was to be towed to the target area by a larger aircraft and upon release was to be guided to target impact by radio-commands using imagery transmitted from a TV camera in the glider's nose. No information on the XBG-1 test program is available, but the model was never used operationally.
Fletcher BG-2
There is conflicting information about the Fletcher BG-2 design. Several sources, e.g. [2], report that when the Frankfort 8-seat XCG-1 troop-carrying glider was cancelled in 1941, the three XCG-1s under construction were completed by Fletcher as XBG-2 bomb gliders. Source [3] gives similar, but not identical, information, indicating that the XBG-2 was similar to the Frankfort XCG-2, a scaled-up 15-seat derivative of the XCG-1. However, the XBG-2 drawing below shows a design which is essentially two XBG-1 fuselages joined by common center wing and tail sections. This design is reported to have carried two 900 kg (2000 lb) bombs. Since no source can be dismissed as erroneous at the momemt, it is not clear which configuration of the XBG-2 was actually built. Most likely one of the designs (converted cargo glider or twin XBG-1) was discarded in favour of the other. In any case, no information about the results of tests (if any!) is available, and the BG-2 program was cancelled in 1942.


Drawings: via George Cully
XBG-1
XBG-2(?)
Source [4] presents yet another completely different story! It says, that the XBG-2 was a derivative of Fletcher's CQ-1A drone control aircraft, and even provides a photograph. If the aircraft on the photo is actually an XBG-2 (which is far from certain!), then the model was indeed derived from the CQ-1, and the other account, that the XBG-2 was derived from the CG-1, might have its origins by a Q→G typo.

Photo: National Museum of the USAF
XBG-2(?)
All said, in the moment there is no reliable information about the nature of the XBG-2 design available.
Cornelius BG-3
The BG-3 was a design with nose-mounted horizontal stabilizers and forward-swept wings. As such it was similar to Cornelius' XFG-1 fuel glider. Although the USAAF had planned to procure one XBG-3 prototype, this order was cancelled in 1942.
Specifications
Except for the dimensions in the drawings, no information on the specifications of the BG designs is available.
Main Sources
[1] Bill Gunston: "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rockets and Missiles", Salamander Books Ltd, 1979
[2] John M. Andrade: "U.S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials, 1909 to 1979", Midland Counties, 1979
[3] US Army Air Forces: "Army Aircraft Model Designations", 1945 & 1946 editions
[4] Bill Norton: "American Military Glider Experiments of WWII", AAHS Journal Vol. 53 No. 2, Summer 2008
 楼主| 发表于 2011-6-16 12:18:23 | 显示全部楼层
GB 系列


GB Series
(GB-1 through GB-15; GT-1)
The GB designation was introduced by the U.S. Army Air Force in 1941, and covered unpowered glide bombs with some standoff range.
Aeronca GB-1
Bellanca GB-2
Timm GB-3
In March 1941, the U.S. Army Air Corps began the development of a very simple type of air-dropped standoff bomb. The weapon was to be a 900 kg (2000 lb) general-purpose bomb fitted with flying surfaces and a simple gyro-stabilization system for azimuth, so that it could be released by the bombers outside the enemy's main air defenses and glide towards its target. The second motivation for using glide bombs was their shallow flight path, which made it more likely to hit a building in a city than a vertical bomb, which could easily fall into the many free areas of a city doing only little damage. The USAAC (later USAAF) ordered three designs for comparative evaluation, the Aeronca GB-1, the Bellanca GB-2 and the Timm GB-3.
The GB-1 used a simple airframe around an M34 900 kg (2000 lb) bomb. It had a 3.66 m (12 ft)-span wing, twin tails, and a glide speed of 370 km/h (230 mph). The GB-1 did not use a guidance system. It was released when the bomber was at a predetermined altitude and distance to the target, and continued to glide on the preset glide path until impact. Range after a drop from 4570 m (15000 ft) was about 32 km (20 miles).

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
GB-1
The GB-2 and GB-3 both used an AN-M66 900 kg (2000 lb) bomb. The GB-2 was 3.58 m (11.75 ft) long, had a span of 3.66 m (12 ft), glided at a speed of 497 km/h (309 mph), and used the same preset glide path principle as the GB-1. However, compared to the latter, the GB-2 had more adverse effects when carried by the bomber and the control equipment was more difficult to install.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
GB-2
The GB-3 was 4.30 m (14.1 ft) long, had a span of 3.66 m (12 ft), glided at 270 km/h (168 mph), and had similar disadvantages as the GB-2. Therefore, the GB-2 and GB-3 were cancelled after the initial flight test phase in early 1942, and the GB-1 was selected for mass production.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
GB-3
Beginning in May 1943, several thousand GB-1 glide bombs were produced, and the first batches were sent to the USAAF bomber force in Great Britain in September that year. However, they were not used initially, because only two GB-1s could be carried by a B-17 (one under each wing), and because the glide bombs were much less accurate than conventionally aimed free-fall bombs. The first combat use eventually occured in May 1944 in an attack against Cologne, but the results were barely satisfactory because of the bombs' low accuracy. Nevertheless more than 1000 GB-1s were subsequently dropped in raids over the Reich.
Production of the GB-1 ended in January 1945, and the glide bomb was no longer used by the post-war USAAF. GB-1 airframes built by Aeronca were also used as the base for most of the guided GB bombs described in the following paragraphs.
USAAF GB-4
In July 1942, the USAAF's Wright Field Equipment Laboratory began the development of the GB-4 guided glide bomb under project MX-108 (later continued as MX-618). The 3.72 m (12.2 ft) long GB-4 was basically an AN-M66 900 kg (2000 lb) general-purpose bomb fitted with a 3.66 m (12 ft) wing and twin tails. Under its fuselage it carried an AN/AXT-2 TV camera and transmitter. The latter's image was displayed to the bombardier, who could then send radio commands to correct the glide bomb's course. The GB-4 flew at a speed of 385 km/h (240 mph) and the accuracy under optimal conditions was around 60 m (200 ft) CEP.

Photos: via Ordway/Wakeford
GB-4
The GB-4 was declared combat-ready in July 1944, and the first units were then used by a specially formed bomber group in Great Britain. However, the initial combat results were disappointing, not the least because of technical difficulties but also because the TV image was too fuzzy on anything other than a clear day. More than 1000 GB-4s were produced, but only relatively few were actually used in combat, even though the results somewhat improved over time. The USAAF also tested a pulsejet-powered derivative of the GB-4 as the JB-4, but the GB-4/JB-4 project was terminated at the end of World War II.
 楼主| 发表于 2011-6-16 12:18:39 | 显示全部楼层
Aeronca GB-5, GB-12, GB-13
The GB-5 (project MX-611) was a GB-1 modified with a B-2 light-contrast seeker to home on targets which were either significantly lighter or darker than their surroundings. It was mainly intended for use against ships, and tests began in 1944. The GB-5, which was quite obviously a pure clear-weather weapon, weighed 1110 kg (2445 lb) and glided at a speed of 400 km/h (250 mph). At the war's end, testing had not been completed, and the project was cancelled. There was possibly also a GB-5A variant, but I have no data about this.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
GB-5
The GB-5C (there are no records of a -5B), developed under project MX-615, was a GB-5 variant with a Hammond-Crosley B-1 light-contrast seeker. It weighed 1130 kg (2500 lb), was later redesignated as GB-12, and was tested briefly in 1945.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
GB-12
The GB-13 (project MX-619, originally designated GB-5D) was a derivative of the GB-5 with a B-3 flare seeker. It was intended for night attacks, where a lead plane would drop bright, long-burning flares on the target, which would then be homed on by the GB-13. Ten successful test flights were made during the development program, which was terminated in mid-1945.
Aeronca GB-6
The GB-6, which was developed as part of project MX-612, was based on the GB-1 and had an Offner heat-seeking device to home on targets with strong infrared emissions. The GB-6 weighed 1130 kg (2490 lb), glided with up to 450 km/h (280 mph) and had an effective range of about 16 km (10 miles). Testing began in late 1943 and continued until 1946.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
 楼主| 发表于 2011-6-16 12:18:55 | 显示全部楼层
GB-6
Aeronca GB-7, GB-14
The GB-7 (project MX-613) was another guided derivative of the GB-1, and used a semi-active radar homing device. The GB-7 (sometimes called "Moth") could home on a target which was illuminated by the launching aircraft's radar. Tests were conducted in June 1945, and the flight performance was similar to that of the GB-6. There was possibly also a GB-7A variant, about which I have no further information.
The GB-7B (project MX-616) was a GB-7 derivative with an active radar seeker and was later redesignated as GB-14. At 1180 kg (2600 lb) it was slightly heavier than the other GB-series bombs, and had a typical glide speed of 450 km/h (280 mph). The GB-14 was intended to be used against naval targets, but the program was cancelled after only one test.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
GB-14
The GB-7C was a variant with a passive radar seeker, i.e. it was pre-tuned to home on the emissions of a specific type of enemy radar. I have no information whether the GB-7C ever reached the flight-test stage.
Aeronca GB-8
The GB-8 was a radio-command guided variant of the GB-1, and was developed under project MX-645. It was equipped with bright flares which allowed the bombardier to visually track the glide-bomb and apply corrective commands on the way to the target.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
GB-8
USAAF GB-9
Developed under project MX-494, the GB-9 was a derivative of the GB-4 and as such did not use the standard Aeronca airframe of most of the other GBs. After the drop from the parent aircraft, the GB-9 built up speed by diving steeply to a predetermined altitude close to the ground when the radio-altimeter would indicate pull-out. The glide bomb then proceeded for 3 to 8 km (2 to 5 miles) at that altitude. During that glide phase, the bombardier could visually track the bomb and send azimuth-correcting commands via a radio-control link. The GB-9 was primarily intended for use against targets which were relatively immune from attacks from above, like e.g. submarine pens.
Work on the GB-9 began in January 1944, and in November that year a successful test flight occurred. However, the bomb was not selected for mass production and operational service.
Aeronca GB-10
The GB-10 was to be glide bomb with TV/radio-command guidance like the GB-4, but was to use the standard GB-1 airframe instead by employing smaller TV equipment. However, the GB-10 was apparently not built.
Aeronca GB-11
The GB-11, developed under project MX-614, was a derivative of the GB-1 for chemical warfare attacks. Instead of the 900 kg (2000 lb) general-purpose bomb, it used an M33A smoke tank to be filled with the chemical agent, and an M-2 discharge tube. After drop, the GB-11 went into a dive to gain speed, and then continued to glide for about 3 km (2 miles) to disperse its agent from an altitude of 60 to 90 m (200 to 300 ft). The GB-11 had only a simple gyro-stabilization system and could not be guided after it had left its parent aircraft. The program was still in the experimental phase, when it was cancelled at the end of World War II.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
GB-11
GB-15
The GB-15 was developed under project MX-717, and used a guidance system with radar and/or TV. No further details are available.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
GB-15
GT-1
The GT-1 (GT = Glide Torpedo) was a variant of the GB-1 which used a Mk.13-2A homing torpedo instead of a general purpose bomb. Like the GB-1, it flew at a preset glide path. However, the GT-1 was equipped with a paravane which trailed 6 m (20 ft) below it, and which upon entering the water triggered the explosive removal of the airframe components from the torpedo. In the water, the torpedo would travel in a preset search pattern like circles or a zig-zag.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford

GT-1
The GT-1 was first tested in late 1943, and was reportedly used operationally a few times by B-25 aircraft in 1944/45.
Specifications
The few available data on the dimensions and performance characteristics of the GB-series bombs are mentioned in the main text.
Main Sources
[1] Frederick I. Ordway III, Ronald C. Wakeford: "International Missile and Spacecraft Guide", McGraw-Hill, 1960
[2] Bill Gunston: "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rockets and Missiles", Salamander Books Ltd, 1979
[3] US Army Air Forces: "Army Aircraft Model Designations", 1946
 楼主| 发表于 2011-6-16 12:19:22 | 显示全部楼层
JB 系列

JB Series
(JB-1 through JB-10)
The JB designation was introduced by the U.S. Army Air Force in 1943, and covered guided missiles with rocket and/or air-breathing jet (turbojet, pulsejet, ramjet) propulsion.
Northrop JB-1 Bat
In July 1944, Northrop received a contract to develop the JB-1 turbojet-powered flying bomb under project MX-543. Northrop designed a flying-wing aircraft with two General Electric B1 turbojets in the center section, and two 900 kg (2000 lb) general purpose bombs in enclosed "bomb containers" in the wing roots. To test the aerodynamics of the design, one JB-1 was completed as a manned unpowered glider, which was first flown in August 1944.

Photo: Western Museum of Flight
JB-1 Glider
In December 1944, the first JB-1 was ready for launch. The missile was launched by a rocket-propelled sled along a 150 m (500 ft) long track, but seconds after release the JB-1 pitched up into a stall and crashed. This was caused by an incorrectly calculated elevon setting for take-off, but the JB-1 program was subsequently stopped mainly because the performance and reliability of the turbojet engines were far below expectations. The program was reoriented towards pulsejet propulsion, and the remaining JB-1s were modified or completed as JB-10 missiles.

Photo: Northrop
JB-1
Note: There are many references, which attribute the JB-1 designation specifically to the manned glider, and which call the unmanned bomb the JB-1A. However, official USAAF documents do not show any indication that a JB-1A designation was ever officially assigned, and therefore it must be assumed that JB-1 did indeed refer to the jet-bomb, and that the manned glider was simply called "JB-1 glider".
There was also a Northrop proposal for a significantly modified design, which Northrop called JB-1B, but this designation was also never officially allocated.
Willys-Overland JB-2
The JB-2 is discussed on a separate page about the LTV-N-2 Loon.
Hughes JB-3 Tiamat
The JB-3 Tiamat subsonic air-to-air missile program began in January 1944 under project MX-570. Prime contractor was Hughes who developed the Tiamat with the assistance of the NACA. JB-3 prototypes were initially launched from the ground with the aid of a booster and then from A-26 Invader aircraft. The JB-3 was propelled by a dual-thrust (boost/sustain) solid-fueled rocket motor and had three comparatively large wings with control surfaces for stability and control. The Tiamat used a semi-active radar seeker and the warhead was triggered by a proximity fuze.

Photo: USAF
JB-3
Testing and development of the JB-3 continued until after World War II, but in late 1946 or early 1947, the program was eventually terminated. By that time, more promising air-to-air missile projects had been started, notably the AAM-A-1 Firebird and AAM-A-2/F-98/GAR-1 Falcon.
JB-4
The JB-4, developed under project MX-607, was a basically a GB-4 guided glide bomb fitted with a Ford PJ31 pulsejet engine (the same type as used in the JB-2/LTV-N-2) to extend the standoff range to 120 km (75 miles). Like the GB-4, it was equipped with an AN/AXT-2 TV transmitter, sending its TV camera image to an operator in the launching aircraft, who could send radio commands to change the course of the missile. The JB-4 is reported as a surface-to-surface missile in some official records, so it seems that is was also intended for ground launch. The missile was tested in 1945, but the program was cancelled at the end of World War II.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
JB-4
JB-5, JB-6, JB-7, JB-9
The JB missiles #5, #6, #7 and #9 were all cancelled in the design or concept phase before anything was built. The JB-5 (project MX-595) was to be a wingless unguided air-to-surface rocket with a range of 6 km (3.7 miles), while the JB-6 (project MX-600) was planned as a spin-stabilized supersonic air-to-surface guided missile. The JB-7 (project MX-605) is described as a 4400 kg (9700 lb) turbojet-powered surface-to-surface cruise missile with a range of 640 km (400 miles). Interestingly, the USAAF reference [5] attributes the JB-7 designation to a project for a jet-powered high-speed research aircraft, which was cancelled when no suitable design came forward. However, given the scope of the JB-series, this seems to be an error. The designation JB-9 was reserved for a short-range surface-to-surface missile, but this project was most likely never actually started. The JB-9 project is probably identical to project MX-626, which is documented as a "jet-propelled short-range surface-to-surface guided missile".
Boeing JB-8
The JB-8 designation was briefly assigned to the MX-606 project for a surface-to-air guided missile. It is described under its later designation SAM-A-1 GAPA (Ground-to-Air Pilotless Aircraft).
Northrop JB-10
After the JB-1 program had been terminated because of the failure of the turbojets, the remaining JB-1s were modified to a pulsejet-powered configuration, designated JB-10. A single Ford PJ31 pulsejet engine was mounted in a centerline shroud. The latter was of larger diameter than the pulsejet to allow the flow of cooling air around the engine. The prominent bomb containers of the JB-1 were also removed and replaced by integral warhead sections in the wing roots.

Photo: Northrop
JB-10
Like the original JB-1 (and also the JB-2), the JB-10 was to be a low-precision standoff weapon for the planned invasion of Japan. The missile used a simple preset guidance system, where it would fly a predetermined distance into the direction of launch and then dive to the ground. The first flight of a JB-10 occurred in April 1945, but was not successful. In fact, of the 10 test-launches of JB-10s there were eight failures and two only partial successes. Because of the development problems (caused by several components of the system) and because the need for such a weapon had disappeared, the JB-10 program was terminated in January 1946.
Specifications
Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!
 楼主| 发表于 2011-6-16 16:09:24 | 显示全部楼层
Data for JB-1, JB-3, JB-4, JB-10:
JB-1JB-3JB-4JB-10
Length3.21 m (10 ft 6.5 in)4.37 m (14 ft 4 in)?3.65 m (11 ft 11.6 in)
Wingspan8.64 m (28 ft 4 in)?3.6 m (12 ft)8.89 m (29 ft 2 in)
Height1.38 m (4 ft ** in)(n/a)(n/a)1.47 m (4 ft 10 in)
Weight3210 kg (7080 lb)270 kg (600 lb)1360 kg (3000 lb)3270 kg (7210 lb)
Speed727 km/h (452 mph)965 km/h (600 mph)716 km/h (445 mph)685 km/h (426 mph)
Range1080 km (670 miles)?120 km (75 miles)300 km (185 miles)
Propulsion2x General Electric B1 turbojet;
1.8 kN (400 lb) each
Dual-thrust solid-fueled rocket;
32 kN (7200 lb) / 0.9 kN (200 lb)
Ford PJ31-F-1 pulsejet;
4.0 kN (900 lb)
Warhead2x 900 kg (2000 lb) GP bomb225 kg (500 lb) high-explosive900 kg (2000 lb) high-explosive2x 825 kg (1825 lb) high-explosive
Main Sources[1] Garry R. Pape, John M. Campbell: "Northrop Flying Wings", Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1995
[2] Fred Anderson: "Northrop. An Aeronautical History", Northrop, 1976
[3] Frederick I. Ordway III, Ronald C. Wakeford: "International Missile and Spacecraft Guide", McGraw-Hill, 1960
[4] Bill Gunston: "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rockets and Missiles", Salamander Books Ltd, 1979
[5] US Army Air Forces: "Army Aircraft Model Designations", 1946
 楼主| 发表于 2011-6-17 04:31:53 | 显示全部楼层
VB 系列
(VB-1 through VB-13)
The VB designation was introduced by the U.S. Army Air Force in 1943, and covered unpowered guided bombs with effectively no standoff gliding range (i.e. "vertical" bombs).
ATSC VB-1/VB-2 Azon
In April 1942, the USAAF's Materiel Command (became part of ATSC (Air Technical Service Command) in 1944) began the development of the Azon family of guided bombs. The initial variant, designated VB-1, was based on a 450 kg (1000 lb) bomb (initially the M44, but later models apparently switched to the standard AN-M65), which was modified with a new tail unit. The latter consisted of a gyroscopic unit to provent the bomb from rolling, a flare for optical tracking, an octagonal shroud with control surfaces, and a radio-command receiver. When a VB-1 was dropped, the bombardier could track it through his bombsight and use a joystick-type control to send corrective commands to the bomb. The Azon guidance system allowed only lateral course corrections, but errors in range could not be corrected (hence the name Azon = "Azimuth Only").
The Azon development phase ended in late 1943, and the VB-1 was subsequently ordered into mass production. The second Azon variant was the heavier VB-2, which was based on a 900 kg (2000 lb) bomb, but that version was apparently not produced in very large numbers. The first VB-1/2 bombs were sent to Europe in February 1944, and a total of 15000 Azons were produced until November 1944.

Photo: via Ordway/Wakeford
VB-1
Because of their azimuth-only guidance, the VB-1 was particularly suited to long and narrow targets (like bridges or railways) where range errors would be irrelevant. For "normal" targets, however, the VB-1 was actually not as good as unguided free-fall bombs, because a bomber could not break away immediately after dropping the bomb, and the accuracy was effectively not increased because of the lack of range control. Another peculiarity of the Azon guidance set was the fact that only five different radio channels were available for the command link, meaning that not more than five bombs could be controlled independently. Although in theory a whole group of bombs using the same command channel could be controlled simultaneously, this was not practical. The accuracy of all but the "primary" bomb (i.e. the one which was tracked by the bombardier) in such a group was rather bad, because the non-spinning Azon bombs showed a significant dispersion.
The drawbacks of the Azon meant that its use remained very limited. However, it was employed rather successfully in Burma, where it was used to destroy very vital and therefore heavily defended bridges along the Japanese supply lines. Less the 500 Azons were needed to destroy 27 bridges.
When the war ended, the USAAF quickly removed the VB-1 and VB-2 from its inventory. Because of the much reduced post-war funding, the USAAF limited its guided vertical bomb research to the more advanced VB-3/VB-4 Razon family.
ATSC VB-3/VB-4 Razon
In parallel with the Azon tests, the ATSC also developed a more advanced variant called Razon, which was to be controllable in both range and azimuth. The designations VB-3 and VB-4 were assigned to the 450 kg (1000 lb) and 900 kg (2000 lb) Razon versions, respectively. The Razon guidance kit had two octagonal shrouds in a tandem arrangement. The most problematic part in Razon development was to build a suitably modified bombsight, which would allow the bombardier to correctly judge the bomb's deviation in range so that the range control could be used effectively. The Razon also had an improved radio-command link with 47 separate channels, effectively eliminating the Azon's problems with concurrent drops by a multitude of bombers.
 楼主| 发表于 2011-6-17 04:32:23 | 显示全部楼层
VB-3
The VB-3/VB-4 was combat-ready in summer 1945, and about 3000 Razons were subsequently produced, but none of them were used before World War II was over. However, the VB-3 was operationally tested five years later during the first months of the Korean War. B-29 aircraft, which could carry eight VB-3s, dropped several hundred Razons on North Korean bridges, and although the overall reliability of the bombs was rather low, some targets were actually destroyed. However, in general multiple hits by the small the 450 kg (1000 lb) bombs were needed to destroy a large bridge span, and the USAF's use of guided bombs for these special missions switched to the much larger VB-13/ASM-A-1 Tarzon.
ATSC VB-5
The VB-5 was a 450 kg (1000 lb) bomb, which used the same tandem octagonal control shroud arrangement as the VB-3/VB-4 Razon. However, the VB-5 was not command guided but used an autonomous light contrast seeker. This bomb did not go into production, presumably because the guidance mechanism didn't work as planned.
ATSC VB-6 Felix
The VB-6 Felix was a 450 kg (1000 lb) bomb with an octagonal control shroud and a heat seeking device in the nose. Intended for use against strong infrared emitters (like e.g. blast furnaces), the VB-6 was tested with some success during 1945, but the program was cancelled at the end of World War II. The U.S. Navy developed a very similar IR-guided bomb as the ASM-N-4 Dove.

Photo: U.S. Air Force Museum
VB-6
ATSC VB-7, VB-8
The VB-7 and VB-8 both used a TV/radio-command guidance, where a TV camera in the bomb's nose transmitted the image to a display set for the bombardier, who could then correct the bomb's course by radio-commands. The weights of the VB-7/VB-8 are unclear, but it can be assumed that these two guided bombs were cancelled early in the development phase.
Douglas VB-9/VB-10/VB-11/VB-12 Roc
The Roc series of guided bombs was developed by Douglas, the MIT and the NDRC (National Defense Research Committee). The VB-9 model was a 450 kg (1000 lb) bomb with cruciform wings and fins and a radar seeker in the nose. The radar image was transmitted to the bombardier who could use it to direct the bomb's path by radio commands. However, the radar was often useless because of ground clutter, and the VB-9 program was terminated in early 1945.

Photo: Phil Callihan
VB-9
The later Roc models all used a 450 kg (1000 lb) bomb body of 61 cm (24 in) diameter and 3 m (10 ft) length. They were fitted with two circular shrouds, a larger one which could move around two axes for directional steering, and a smaller one in the tail designed to slow down the bomb to facilitate the tracking and guidance task of the bombardier. The VB-10 had a TV camera and transmitter, so that the bombardier could track the bomb via the image on his TV display set. The VB-11 had an infrared seeker for autonomous heat-seeking guidance, and the VB-12 was tracked visually (making it similar in operation to the VB-3/VB-4 Razon).

Photo: Boeing
VB-10/VB-11/VB-12 (exact model unknown)
The VB-10 (and presumably also the VB-11/VB-12 models) was tested between September 1944 and May 1945, when the Roc program was terminated without any model going into production.
Bell VB-13 Tarzon
The VB-13 is discussed on a separate page about the VB-13/ASM-A-1 Tarzon.
Specifications
The few available data on the dimensions and weights of the VB-series bombs are mentioned in the main text.
Main Sources
[1] Frederick I. Ordway III, Ronald C. Wakeford: "International Missile and Spacecraft Guide", McGraw-Hill, 1960
[2] Bill Gunston: "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rockets and Missiles", Salamander Books Ltd, 1979
[3] USAF Museum Website
[4] David R. Metz: "The Quest for a Surgical Strike: The Air Force and Laser-guided Bombs", 1987
 楼主| 发表于 2011-6-17 04:33:17 | 显示全部楼层
Fleetwings BQ - 1/BQ - 2

In March 1942, the USAAF initiated a program to develop radio-controlled assault drones, frequently called "aerial torpedoes" at that time. These aerial torpedoes were to be unmanned expendable aircraft (either purpose-built or converted from existing types), fitted with a large payload of high-explosive, remote-control equipment and a forward-looking TV camera. The drones were to be directed to the target by radio commands from a control aircraft, where the operator would "fly" the drone watching the video transmitted by the camera.
In July 1942, Fleetwings was awarded a contract for the BQ-1 assault drone, but development was slow. In October 1943, Fleetwings could successfully demonstrate the guidance principle with a YPQ-12A target drone converted to a radio-controlled bomb with a TV camera. However, the BQ-1 program was cancelled in July 1944, when the only XBQ-1 prototype crashed on its first flight.

Photo: Tom Beamer collection, via Aerofiles
XBQ-1
The XBQ-1 was powered by two Franklin O-405-7 piston engines and had a fixed tricycle landing gear. The XBQ-1 had a cockpit so that it could be flown by an on-board pilot on test and ferry flights. For unmanned flights, the cockpit would have been replaced by a flush fairing.
Together with the XBQ-1, the USAAF also ordered a single XBQ-2. This was to be identical to the XBQ-1 except for Lycoming XO-435-3 engines and a jettisonable landing gear. The XBQ-2 was not built, however, being replaced by a single XBQ-2A. The XBQ-2A replaced the O-435 engines by two Lycoming R-680-13. Because of high costs, the XBQ-2A project was terminated in December 1943, and the aircraft was subsequently redesignated as ZXBQ-2A to denote its obsolescence.


Photos: George H. Stuebing Collection
XBQ-2A
Specifications
Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!
Data for XBQ-1, XBQ-2A:
 楼主| 发表于 2011-6-17 04:33:29 | 显示全部楼层
XBQ-1XBQ-2A
Wingspan14.81 m (48 ft 7 in)
Weight3500 kg (7700 lb)
Speed360 km/h (225 mph)?
Range2740 km (1700 miles)?
Propulsion2x Franklin O-405-7 piston engine; 167 kW (225 hp) each2x Lycoming R-680-13 piston engine; 207 kW (280 hp) each
Warhead900 kg (2000 lb) high-explosive
Main Sources[1] Kenneth P.Werrell: "The Evolution of the Cruise Missile", Air University Press, 1985
[2] John M. Andrade: "U.S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials, 1909 to 1979", Midland Counties, 1979
[3] James C. Fahey: "U.S. Army Aircraft 1908-1946", Ships and Aircraft, 1946
[4] US Army Air Forces: "Army Aircraft Model Designations", 1945 & 1946 editions
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