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[信息] 250年前的永动机器(大量图片)

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发表于 2007-9-10 06:47:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
<br />年表 <br /><br />1680-1711 1680年至1711年 <br />Johann Ernst Elias Bessler is born in or around the village of Zittau, Germany. 约翰恩斯特埃利亚斯老婆是出生或村周围齐,德国。 <br />Bessler travels extensively and learns many trades. 老婆游记广泛汲取许多行业。 He earns a living crafting and applying medical cures. 他的收入生活,并精心运用医学疗法。 <br />Bessler creates his professional name, Orffyre, by transposing the letters in his name using the &#39;albam&#39; method. 老婆创造自己的专业名称, orffyre ,转信中他的名字用&#39; albam &#39;方法。 A similar method is to arrange the alphabet in a circle and transpose opposite letters - B becomes O, E becomes R, etc. Bessler then Latinised Orffyre to Orffyreus, as was fashionable at the time. 类似的方法是安排了字母一个圈子转信对面-乙成为澳 , 电子成为住宅等,然后老婆l atinisedo rffyre以o rffyreus,正如风靡当时。 <br />Bessler attempts to discover perpetual motion, claiming success after 10 years of study and experiments. 消防队员试图发现永恒的议案,并声称成功后, 10年的研究和实验。 <br />1712-13 1712年至1713年 <br />First public exhibition is on 6th June 1712 at the inventors home in Gera, Germany. 首次公开展览,是对1712年6月6日在发明家家gera ,德国。 <br />His machine is a wheel about 6.5 feet diameter and 4 inches thick and it self-rotates at 50 RPM. 他的机器是一个车轮约6.5英尺,直径4英寸厚,它的自我旋转,在50 rpm的。 The wheel is officially tested and certified on 9th October that year. 该轮是正式的测试与认证,对9月25日举行。 <br />Bessler offers to sell his secret for the one-off sum of 100,000 Thalers - 20,000 English Pounds. 老婆优惠卖给他的秘密为一次性笔100000 thalers -英语2 0000英镑。 <br />Gartner begins campaign to discredit Bessler. gartner的运动开始向老婆抹黑。 <br />Bessler destroys his wheel and moves to Draschwitz. 老婆摧毁他的车轮和举动德拉施维茨。 <br />1714 1714 <br />Bessler&#39;s second wheel is unveiled at the inventors home in Draschwitz, Germany. 老婆的第二轮亮相发明者家德拉施维茨,德国。 It is 9.3 feet diameter and 6 inches thick and rotates at 50 RPM. 这是930英尺,直径6英寸厚,轮流在50个以上。 This larger and more powerful wheel is designed to counter critisism that his previous wheel was too small and weak to be of practical value. 这个更大和更强大的车轮是为了对付批评他的车轮上过于弱小要的实用价值。 <br />Gartner, Borlach and Wagner intensify their campaign to discredit Bessler, publishing a pamphlet that depicts the wheel driven through hollowed-out support posts. gartner的borlach与瓦格纳加紧运动抹黑老婆,出版了一本小册子,叙述轮驱动透过挖空的全力支持职位。 <br />Bessler destroys his wheel and moves to Merseburg. 老婆摧毁他的车轮和举动merseburg 。 <br />1715 1715 <br />Third wheel exhibited at the inventors home in Merseburg, Germany. 第三轮展出发明家家merseburg ,德国。 This wheel is 11.15 feet diameter and 11.15 inches thick and rotates at 46 RPM unloaded. 这个车轮是11.15英尺,直径11.15英寸厚,轮流在46 rpm的卸载。 This is the first of Bessler&#39;s dual-direction wheels, designed to counter critisism that his machines are somehow wound up with a spring. 这是第一条老婆的双车轮方向,旨在对付批评他的机器是有点伤了一个春天。 <br />Official examination and tests are conducted on 31st October, including a translocation of the wheel to prove the posts are not hollowed-out. 正式考试和测试进行10月31日,包括易位车轮证明职位不空心。 Official certificate of approval issued. 官方批准证书签发。 <br />Gartner, Borlach and Wagner continue to make accusations of fraud despite inability to explain or replicate Bessler&#39;s demonstrations. gartner的borlach与瓦格纳继续作出指控诈骗虽然无法解释或复制老婆的示威活动。 <br />1716 1716 <br />Karl, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, offers to sponsor Bessler and his invention. 卡尔,兰德格拉弗黑森州-卡塞尔,提供赞助老婆和他的发明。 To receive patronage and protection, Bessler must prove his wheel is genuine by revealing the secret to Karl. 接受赞助和保护,消防队员必须证明他的车轮是由真正泄露秘密卡尔。 In return, Karl agrees to give Bessler 4000 Thalers and promises not to use or disclose the secret until a successful sale is made. 作为回报,卡尔同意给老婆4000 thalers承诺不使用或披露的秘密,直到成功出售了。 After seeing inside the wheel, Karl is convinced and offers Bessler the position of Commercial Councillor with protection, lodgings, income and the means to begin construction of a new, larger wheel. 看了内车轮,卡尔确信,并提供老婆的立场商业局与保障,住房,收入和手段,开始构建一个新的,更大的车轮。 <br />Bessler moves to Weissenstein Castle, after destroying his wheel at Merseburg. 老婆迁往布鲁克林城堡,摧毁后,他在车轮merseburg 。 <br />1717 1717 <br />Bessler&#39;s fourth and largest wheel is built in a room at Weissenstein Castle. 老婆的第四大车轮是建在一个房间位于布鲁克林城堡。 It is 12 feet diameter and 18 inches thick and, like his previous wheel at Merseburg, does not require restraint when at rest and accelerates in either direction from a light push start. 它是12英尺,直径18英寸厚,像他以前在车轮merseburg ,不需要克制时,在休息和加速无论从方向轻推开始。 <br />Bessler requests a long-duration test, with the wheel sealed and secured under lock and guard. 老婆请了长期试验,车轮密封,并在担保下锁和戒心。 This test runs for 54 days, from 12th November until the 4th January 1718. 这项试验为期54天,从11月12日至1718年1月4日。 He also performs a translocation of the wheel to prove there is no hidden axle drive. 他还演奏了易位的车轮证明并无隐轴传动。 An official certificate is issued to the inventor confirming the circumstances of the tests and the favourable results. 正式证书颁发给发明人确认的情况下测试和有利的结果。 <br />The wheel is intensely examined, tested and scrutinised by many notable scientists, engineers and officials over the next 4 years. 车轮是埋头研究,测试和审核,许多著名的科学家,工程师和官员,在未来的4年。 <br />1721 1721 <br />Karl donates a house to Bessler, with garden and meadow attached, in the nearby town of Karlshafen. 卡尔赠送房子给老婆,花园及所附草甸,在附近的城镇卡尔斯哈芬。 <br />On 17th August, Bessler destroys his wheel at Weissenstein Castle. 10月17日,消防队员破坏他的车轮在布鲁克林城堡。 <br />Bessler moves himself and his family from Weissenstein Castle to Karlshafen. 老婆的举动自己和家人从布鲁克林城堡卡尔斯哈芬。 <br />There is no information on any further wheels exhibited by Bessler but there is suggestion that he built a smaller uni-direction type wheel in later years. 有没有关于任何进一步展示轮子由老婆,但有建议他建一个较小的单方向型车轮在晚年。 <br />1727 1727 <br />On 28th November Bessler&#39;s maid, Anne Rosine Mauersbergerin, testifies to authorities that Bessler&#39;s wheels had all been turned manually by Bessler, his wife, his brother Gottfried and herself. 28月11老婆的女仆,安妮罗西纳mauersbergerin ,证明当局老婆的车轮都被变成手动老婆,他的妻子,弟弟gottfried和自己。 She claimed the turning was carried out by a small crank in an adjoining room. 她声称车削进行了一个小曲柄在毗邻房间。 She claimed the posts had been hollowed out and contained a long and thin piece of iron with a barb at the bottom which was attached to the shaft journal. 她声称职位被挖空了,并载有一个细长一根铁与barb在底部被附在轴学报。 The maids accusations were discredited and the charges were dismissed. 女佣指控不可信,并指控被驳回。 A long and difficult relationship existed between Mauersbergerin and Bessler and there is suggestion that she did not act alone in her accusations (Gartner). 一个长期而艰巨的关系之间存在mauersbergerin和老婆有建议说,她不单独行动,她指控( gartner的) 。 Bessler&#39;s reputation is permenantly damaged. 老婆的声誉是长期受损。 <br />Bessler destroys all documents, drawings and models that describe and prove his secret, in fear of it being stolen upon his arrest. 老婆销毁所有文件,图纸和模型描述,并证明了他的秘密,害怕它被盗后,他被捕。 <br />1730 1730 <br />On 23rd March Karl, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, dies age 76. 23日,卡尔本兰德格拉弗黑森州-卡塞尔,模具76岁。 <br />1738 1738 <br />Bessler announces three new inventions: A fountain which leaps continuously from still waters; A large musical organ which plays by itself; An &#39;Orffyrean ship&#39;, or special preservation device, designed to save lives and goods at sea in the event of shipwreck. 老婆宣布三项新发明:喷泉所不断飞跃,从仍水域;大型音乐器官发挥本身; &#39; orffyrean船&#39; ,或特殊保存装置,旨在挽救生命和货物在海上发生海难。 <br />1745 1745 <br />Bessler is commissioned to design and erect a large windmill project in Fürstenburg. 老婆是委托设计和树立大风车项目fürstenburg 。 <br />While working on the upper levels of the building, on 30th November, Bessler falls to his death at age 65. 而工作,上级的建设, 11月30日,消防队员瀑布去世时65岁。 <br />Bessler&#39;s widow offers his possessions to the state. 消防队员的遗孀提供自己的财产交给国家。 <br />... … …&nbsp;
 楼主| 发表于 2007-9-10 06:52:53 | 显示全部楼层
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 楼主| 发表于 2007-9-10 06:53:37 | 显示全部楼层
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