[信息] 建设时速1000公里的汽车

发表于 2009-11-24 06:25:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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Strapped into a custom built seat, Andy Green prepares for the ride of his life. 成建座椅定制,缺乏安迪绿色做好准备了他的人生旅程。 The pancake-flat desert stretches out for miles ahead. 薄煎饼,平坦的沙漠绵延数英里出人头地。 The computer indicates all systems are normal. 计算机显示的所有系统都是正常的。 He eases off the brakes and puts his foot down on the throttle. 他需要减少刹车并提出了他的脚在油门。 The jet engine roars into life. 喷气发动机的咆哮到生活。 In precisely 42.5 seconds he'll be travelling 1000 mph. 在准确42.5秒他将前往1000英里每小时。 In a car. 在一辆汽车。
"It's almost impossible to tell the difference between going supersonic in a car and in an aircraft," says Green. “这几乎是不可能分清超音速将在汽车和飞机的区别,”格林说。 He is the only person on Earth who can say that from personal experience.他是地球上唯一的人,谁可以说,从个人的经验。 Green was a fighter pilot for the UK Royal Air Force for 20 years, and he is also the fastest man on wheels.格林是一个20年的英国皇家空军战斗机飞行员,他也是在轮子上跑得最快的人。 In 1997, driving a vehicle called ThrustSSC, he set the world land speed record of 763 miles per hour, becoming the first and only person to break the sound barrier in a car (761 mph under standard conditions). 1997年,驾驶车辆称为超音速推进,他阐述了每小时763英里的世界陆地速度纪录,成为第一个也是唯一的人打破标准条件下的汽车音障(761英里)。 Now, together with the Bloodhound SSC design team, he's attempting to do it all over again, and then some.现在,连同警犬南南合作的设计团队,他试图重新做这一切,然后一些。
This time there's competition.这一次的比赛。 A three-way race is developing, with two other teams, one from North America and the other from Australia, vying to wrest the record from the Brits.三路种族是发展中国家,与另外两个小组,一个来自北美和澳大利亚等争相从英国人手中夺取的记录。 The first step will be to break the existing record and get past 800 mph.第一步将是打破现有的记录并获得过去八百英里每小时。 If that succeeds, the next stage is to attempt 1000 mph (1609 kilometres per hour).如果成功,下一个阶段是尝试1000英里每小时(每小时1609公里)。 "That's what we're designing the car for," says Ron Ayers, chief aeronautic engineer on the Bloodhound project. “这就是我们设计的汽车说:”罗恩艾尔斯,在警犬的首席项目航空工程师。
All three competing vehicles have wheels, brakes and a steering wheel, but that's pretty much where the similarity with conventional cars ends.所有这三个竞争车辆车轮,制动器和方向盘,不过这几乎结束时与传统汽车的相似性。 Getting up to the speed of sound and beyond poses challenges that a normal car will never encounter, requiring some radical design and engineering.起床的声音传播速度及以后带来的挑战,一个普通汽车将永远不会遇到的,需要一些激进的设计和工程。
For example, the wheels of a 1000 mph car will need to rotate at over 10,000 revolutions per minute, many times faster than on an ordinary car.例如,一千英里每小时汽车的轮子转动将需要超过10000转每分钟,很多次,快于普通汽车。 This rate of spin entails an acceleration of almost 50,000 g at the rim, generating forces that would easily tear conventional wheels apart.这种旋转速率需要在沿岸的近50,000 g加速度,产生力量,很容易撕除传统的车轮。 Instead, this car will need wheels of solid titanium, or more likely carbon-reinforced aluminium.相反,这种汽车将需要固体钛,或更可能碳轮强化铝。 What's more, as the vehicle approaches the speed of sound, it produces a frontal shock wave which liquefies the earth ahead, so the wheels end up carving through ground, rather than simply rolling over it.更重要的是,由于车辆接近音速的,它产生正面冲击波的液化地球未来,所以车轮最终通过地面雕刻,而不是简单地在它滚动。 On top of all that, beyond 250 mph, airflow starts to become a more important consideration in controlling the vehicle than traction on the ground.在最严重的是,除了250英里每小时,气流开始成为控制比在地面牵引车辆更重要的考虑。 At this speed, the wheels begin to behave like rudders or aerofoils, and driving the car becomes more like controlling a speedboat or flying an aircraft.在这个速度,车轮开始像方向舵或叶片,并驾驶汽车变得更象一快艇或控制飞机飞行。 "Our biggest single concern is to make sure the vehicle stays on the ground," says Green. “我们最大的单一关注的是,以确保车辆在地面停留,”格林说。
As the car approaches the speed of sound, it produces a shock wave which liquefies the earth ahead当汽车接近音速,它产生的冲击波液化地球的未来
Creating a "car" that takes account of all these factors means exploring unchartered territory in aerodynamics and vehicle mechanics.创建一个“车”,兼顾所有这些因素就是探索在空气动力学和车辆维修技工的境地。 "No one has ever designed a car to go this fast before," says Green, "so we've got to develop and test, develop and test... it's an ongoing research project." “从来没有人设计的赛车去这么快的,”格林说,“所以我们得开发和测试,开发和测试...这是一个正在进行的研究项目。”
Time = 10 seconds时间= 10秒
Green hits 79 mph. 绿色点击79英里每小时。 At this stage he would be eating the dust of an average sports car, but Bloodhound is an automotive wolf in sheep's clothing. 在这个阶段他将吃一个汽车平均体育灰尘,但警犬是一个披着羊皮的狼汽车。 Green holds steady, and 5 seconds later unleashes the first of his secret weapons: an afterburner which dumps extra fuel into the jet engine, stoking it up to full power. 绿色则保持稳定,5秒钟后释放了他的秘密武器第一次:一加力的转储到喷气发动机的额外燃料,火上加油达到满功率。
Bloodhound SSC will use a retired Eurofighter jet engine to provide the first-stage thrust for the car.警犬南南合作将使用一个退役战斗机喷气发动机提供一流的汽车级的推力。 In that respect it resembles ThrustSSC, which was powered entirely by two jet engines.在这方面它类似于超音速推进,这是由两个完全喷气发动机。 But according to Ayers, that set-up won't be good enough to reach 1000 mph.但据艾尔斯,即设置不足够,达到1000英里。 "The large front inlets [for the jet engines to take in air] on ThrustSSC produced huge shock waves at supersonic speed," he says. “前面的大口的喷气发动机[参与空中]对超音速推进以超音速的速度产生巨大的冲击波,”他说。 "This means we couldn't get any more than a 5 per cent increase in speed using that design." “这意味着我们无法得到任何超过百分之五以上的速度增加,使用该设计。”
The joint US-Canadian team, North American Eagle, begs to differ.联合美,加拿大队,北美鹰,不敢苟同。 They are going entirely with jets.他们将完全飞机。 Instead of designing a car from scratch, they have taken the fuselage of a scrapped F-104 Starfighter aircraft, added the engine from an F-4 Phantom supersonic fighter-bomber bought from a surplus seller, and bolted on some wheels.而不是从头开始设计的汽车,他们采取了一个机身取消F - 104星式战斗机飞机从一架F增加了发动机- 4鬼怪式超音速战斗机,从卖方购买盈余轰炸机,以及在一些车轮螺栓。 "We know the aircraft can do around 1500 mph, so if we can do just half of that on land we're already pretty close to the record," says Ed Shadle, the car's driver and co-owner. “我们知道可以做飞机大约1500英里,所以如果我们能够做到这一半的土地我们已经非常接近纪录,”埃德说,这辆车的司机和合作Shadle所有者。
Unlike their competitors, North American Eagle is already built and rolling.与他们的竞争对手,北美鹰已经建成和滚动。 Shadle has done 27 runs so far, pushing the car to 400 mph to test the parachute systems and brakes, and to collect data to model what will happen at higher speeds. Shadle做了27运行至今,推动汽车到400英里每小时测试刹车系统和降落伞,并收集数据,模型会发生什么事在更高的速度。 He is now refining the wheels and aerodynamics.他现在是完善车轮和空气动力学。 "We're hoping to go after the record on the Fourth of July 2010," he says. “我们希望去后,在2010年7月第四次,”他说记录。
 楼主| 发表于 2009-11-24 06:31:16 | 显示全部楼层

 楼主| 发表于 2009-11-24 06:31:50 | 显示全部楼层
迄今为止,他不知道去哪里,企图将,因为他最终还是选择了飞机就有提交了一个非常困难的问题,他说:轨道,他将需要加速至1000英里到然后减速停下纯粹的长度。 The terrain has to be as flat as glass; any bumps might send the car off-track with disastrous consequences.地形要像玻璃;任何颠簸可能会给汽车时,具有灾难性后果的轨道平面。 Shadle is looking for a site with around 14 miles of uninterrupted flatness. Shadle正在寻找一个大约14公里的不间断平坦的网站。 Ayers and the Bloodhound team aren't convinced that will be easy to find.艾尔斯和警犬队并不相信,将很容易找到。
Their approach is to shorten the run as much as possible by going for more thrust.其办法是缩短为更多的推力将运行尽可能。 They are designing for a 10-mile run, a constraint that has led them to make a radical choice: instead of two jet engines, they will use one jet for the initial acceleration and then boost to full speed with a rocket.他们正在设计的10公里跑步,而不是两个喷气发动机的这种做法已经导致他们作出一个激进的选择约束:,他们将使用初始加速度一股水柱,然后可以显着提高火箭全速。
Building both types of engine into the car has been no mean feat.建设成为汽车发动机两种类型已绝非易事。 The team initially wanted the rocket to sit above the jet engine, as this would lower the centre of gravity of the car and make it more stable.研究小组原本希望火箭坐在上面的喷气发动机,因为这将降低汽车的重心,使之更加稳定。 But this configuration led to the risk of oversteer, so they reluctantly swapped the engines around.但是,此配置导致了过度的风险,因此他们不情愿地交换引擎左右。
It may seem a trivial decision, but the change has far-reaching consequences.这看似小事的决定,但变化具有深远的影响。 It alters not only the internal design of the car but also the aerodynamics, and it dramatically affects the distribution of forces across the front and back wheels, presenting a whole new set of problems.它不仅改变了汽车的内部设计,而且空气动力学,它极大地影响了整个正面及背面车轮力量布局,呈现出全新的一系列新问题。 But control ultimately governs the top speed, so jet over rocket is their only option.但是,控制最终执政的最高速度,所以火箭的喷气客机是他们唯一的选择。
Time = 23 seconds时间= 23秒
Travelling at 269 mph, Bloodhound is now speeding faster than a Formula 1 car at top whack. 在二百六十九英里每小时旅行,警犬正在加快速度比F1赛车的顶级重击。 Green braces himself, then pushes a button that fires the rocket. 绿色括号自己,那么推一按钮火灾火箭。 In an instant he is pushed back in his seat as the car's acceleration ramps up to 2.3 g . 刹那间他推迟了他作为汽车的加速到来之际以二点三克席位。
Rocket powered cars are not a common sight even in land-speed record attempts, because the thrust from a rocket is so huge, rapid and hard to control.火箭动力车是不是即使在土地随处可见,速度纪录的企图,因为火箭的推力从如此巨大,快速,难以控制。 That's why just about the only vehicles powered by rockets are drag cars.这就是为什么只是火箭动力的唯一车辆拖曳车。
Huge, rapid and hard to control thrust is no bother to Rosco McGlashan, an Australian drag racer who has set up a rival team to Bloodhound and North American Eagle.巨大的,快速的和难以控制的主旨是不中听的罗斯科麦克格拉山,澳大利亚车手谁拖已成立一个小组,警犬的对手和北美鹰。 His car, Aussie Invader, will also be propelled by rockets - in fact, nothing but rockets.他的车,澳元侵略者,也将推动火箭弹-事实上,只是火箭。
"I think the Bloodhound project is a great idea, but it's too complicated," he says. “我认为警犬项目是一个好主意,但它太复杂了,”他说。 "I believe in keeping it as simple as possible. An all-rocket design is as simple as it gets." “我相信,在保持尽可能简单。一个全面的火箭设计是很简单,因为它得到它。” If all goes to plan, Aussie Invader will reach the 1000 mph target thanks to four rockets which will give it more than 200 times the power of a Formula 1 car.如果一切按计划进行,澳元入侵者将达到一千英里每小时目标感谢四枚火箭,这将给它的200倍以上的一级方程式赛车的权力。
Rocket-based cars do have one significant downside, however: the exhaust plume is so fierce that it is likely to excavate a ditch behind the car.火箭的车确实有一个重大的缺点,但是:排气羽流是如此激烈,很可能挖掘车后面的沟。 That's not a problem for a one-way journey.这不是一个单程车票的问题。 To meet the official requirements for the record, however, a car has to not only cover 1 mile in under 3.6 seconds, but also repeat the feat in the opposite direction along a parallel track within the hour.为了满足记录的官方要求,但是,赛车不仅涵盖在3.6秒1英里的,而且在一小时内重复在沿相反的方向平行的轨道壮举。 If the car veers off course for any reason, the last thing the driver wants to have to contend with is a nearby ditch.当然,如果把车以任何理由不见得让它的最后一件事,司机希望有抗衡的是附近的沟。
Time = 42.5 seconds时间=四十二点五秒
4.2 miles down the track, Green hits 1000 mph. 四点二英里沿着这个轨道走下去,绿色点击一〇 〇 〇英里每小时。 In less than 2 seconds his official 1-mile run will start; 3.5 seconds later it will be over and he could be halfway to setting a new record. 在不到2秒的正式一公里跑步开始; 3.5秒之后将结束他可能会半路创下新的纪录。
With all that rocket power at its disposal, the Australian car is the hare to Bloodhound's tortoise.所有在其掌握的火箭动力,澳大利亚的汽车是在警犬的乌龟兔子。 "We reach 1000 mph in 19 seconds," says McGlashan. “我们达到19秒千英里每小时说,”麦克格拉山。 That's over twice as fast as Bloodhound, meaning McGlashan will reach top speed just 3 miles down the track.这对快两倍,警犬,这意味着麦克格拉山将达到最高速度只有3英里的轨道下降。
Rocket-powered cars come with other problems, though.火箭为动力的汽车到其他的问题,但。 For a start, the rate at which they burn fuel is enormous.首先,它的速度,他们燃烧燃料是巨大的。 Aussie Invader will consume almost 3 tonnes of fuel and oxidiser to reach top speed, which is delivered through a system of pressurised gas cylinders.澳元入侵者将消耗近3吨的燃料和氧化剂,达到最高速度,这是通过一个加压系统提供气瓶。 Though Bloodhound's fuel consumption is lower, its rocket still requires fuel to be delivered at a phenomenal rate.虽然警犬的油耗更低,其火箭的燃料仍需要将交付以惊人的速度。 It achieves this thanks to a 4.2-litre internal-combustion engine whose sole function is to keep the oxidant flowing in.它成功完成了感谢的4.2升内燃机,其唯一的功能是保持氧化剂不断涌入,
With all this power and speed, you might wonder what safety systems have been built in. The answer: surprisingly little.有了这些力量和速度,你可能不知道的安全系统已经建成英寸答案:少得惊人。 All the cockpits are reinforced, and there are seat belts and emergency kill switches for the engines, but none of the three cars has an ejector seat.所有的驾驶舱得到加强,有安全带和紧急杀死引擎开关,但三部车辆都没有一个弹射座椅。 According to Green, this is "by far the safest" arrangement.根据绿色,这是“迄今为止最安全”的安排。 "Designing an ejector system is a multi-million-pound project in its own right that could be fraught with problems itself. If we can keep the wheels on the ground, why would you want to leave the car?" “设计一个喷射系统是一个多亿,本身英镑的项目,可与本身充满问题。如果我们能保持地面上的车轮,为什么你要离开的车?”
 楼主| 发表于 2009-11-24 06:32:20 | 显示全部楼层
三部车辆均没有一个弹射座椅。 This is by far the safest arrangement这是迄今为止最安全的安排
For McGlashan, the local wildlife probably represent the greatest threat.对于麦克格拉山,当地的野生动物可能代表了最大的威胁。 "Imagine a kangaroo running across the track while you're travelling at 1000 mph. They could appear from out of nowhere - that's probably the biggest danger in Australia," he says. “想象一下,一个袋鼠的轨道上运行,而你在1000英里每小时行驶。他们可能出现的无处不在-这可能是澳大利亚最大的危险,”他说。
Imagine a kangaroo running across the track while you're travelling at 1000 mph想象一下,一个袋鼠的轨道上运行,而你在一○○○英里每小时行驶
Then there is the minor issue of stopping.然后是制止未成年人的问题。
Time = 47.6 seconds时间=47.6秒
Green completes the measured mile, cuts the rocket and jet, and is thrown forward in his seat as the car lurches from 2 g of acceleration to 3 g of deceleration. 绿化完成220.571英里,削减火箭和飞机,而且他抛出车2猛然间加速至3的座椅向前减速。 In 9 seconds the first parachute will be deployed, followed 7 seconds later by a second. 在9第一降落伞将部署秒,7秒后接着进行第二次。 Then it will be time to slam on the brakes. 然后将时间满贯刹车。
It won't be that straightforward for McGlashan.这将不会是麦格拉申简单。 "We can't just flick a switch and kill the engines or we'll get 16 g of deceleration," he says. “我们不能只弗利克开关,发动机或杀死我们将获得16 的减速,”他说。 That would put him at serious risk of injury: even highly trained fighter pilots like Green pull no more than 12 g during aerobatic manoeuvres.这将会使受伤的严重威胁他说:即使像训练有素的绿色战斗机飞行员拉不超过12克,在特技飞行演习。
So McGlashan has to turn the rockets off in stages.因此麦格拉申能转化的火箭在起飞阶段。 Two rockets are automatically cut as he enters his measured mile, the other two around 2 seconds later.两枚火箭被自动切断,因为他进入他的220.571英里,另外两个约2秒后。 At this point he is still moving too fast to fire a parachute, so he deploys a "stinger" - a 50-metre metal cable that creates plenty of air drag as it trails behind the car, while helping to keep the car in a straight line.在这一点上他仍是速度太快,小心防火降落伞,所以他部署了“毒刺” -一个50米的金属电缆,造成大量的空气阻力,因为它后面的赛车路线,同时也有助于保持在一条直线的车行。 Three seconds later his speed should have fallen to around 700 mph and he can deploy a chute.三秒钟后,他的速度应该已经下降到了大约700英里到他可以部署一个降落伞。 "When I hit 500 mph, it's time to lean hard on the carbon-fibre brakes", he says. “当我击五百英里每小时,它的时间无依无靠的硬碳纤维刹车”,他说。 Those brakes will burn up and need replacing at the end of the run.这些刹车就会燃烧起来,需要在运行结束取代。
To find a suitably long and flat track for the Bloodhound team, Green has been to Turkey, the US, Australia and South Africa to check out salt pans and mud flats.要查找的警犬队1平适当长期跟踪,绿色一直是土耳其,美国,澳大利亚和南非签出盐田泥滩。 The two different surfaces each have pros and cons.这两个不同的表面各有利弊。 Salt pans are unforgivingly hard and slippery, but tend to be glassy flat and clear of debris.盐田是unforgivingly硬滑,但往往是玻璃碎片的单位和明确的。 Mud flats are more forgiving but they are often covered in rocks or stones.泥滩,更宽容,但他们往往在岩石或石块覆盖。 "We will need to sweep an area 18 kilometres by 500 metres to clear enough space for the tracks," says Green. “我们需要扫除500米,面积18公里,以清除轨道足够的空间,”格林说。
Mud flats pose another unexpected problem, says Ayers.泥滩带来意想不到的问题,说艾尔斯。 The supersonic shock wave throws up a spray of dust, altering the flow of air around the car and creating "spray drag".超音速的冲击波引发尘土喷雾,改变周围的空气流动和汽车制造“喷雾拖累”。 McGlashan points out that the dust might present an additional problem for the air-breathing jet engines.麦格拉申指出,尘埃可能带来的空气另外一个问题,呼吸喷气发动机。 "With a rocket you don't have an air intake, so you don't have that problem."用火箭“你没有一个进气口,所以你没有这方面的问题。”
McGlashan is exploring a radical solution to the problem.麦克格拉山正在探索彻底解决问题。 "We're talking to some people in Dubai who have suggested building a dedicated track for us." “我们正在与一些在迪拜谁提议建立一个专门为我们跟踪的人。” Whether the money to do it is made available remains to be seen.无论钱去做是提供还有待观察。
So who is going to be first to have a shot at the record?那么,谁将会是第一个在纪录高一杆? Green is by far the most experienced when it comes to supersonic cars, and his team has the most technical prowess.绿色是迄今为止最有经验的当谈到超音速汽车,和他的团队拥有最技术实力。 But while Bloodhound's design is progressing apace, they don't expect to make their first attempt for at least another 18 months.但是,在警犬的设计工作进展迅速进行,他们不希望使他们至少还需要18个月的首次尝试。 North American Eagle is up and running, and McGlashan has finished building the body of Aussie Invader and is just awaiting delivery of the rockets.北美鹰启动并运行,并麦克格拉山已完成建设澳元Invader的机构,只是等待火箭交付。 "I don't want to blow smoke up anyone's bum, but with luck we might make an attempt in 12 months," says McGlashan. “我不想炸毁任何人的范烟,但运气可能使我们在12个月的尝试,说:”麦克格拉山。
Time = 95.8 seconds时间=九十五点八秒
Green pulls to a halt. 格林拉下来。 He has covered nearly 10 miles in just over 90 seconds. 他谈到在短短的90秒近10英里。 His average speed over the measured mile is 1013 mph. 他对220.571英里的平均速度是一零一三英里每小时。 The record is there for the taking. 记录是那里劫持。 All he has to do is turn around and do it all over again. 所有他所要做的就是回过头来重新做这一切。
发表于 2009-11-25 21:24:57 | 显示全部楼层
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