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[技术] 自制耐火炉

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发表于 2009-10-16 06:41:53 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
耐火炉是浇铸不可少的设备,今天我们来自制一个耐火炉。工艺不算太复杂。只是用一些配料就可以。

This page will detail some of the refractory formulas that I experiment with. My previous furnaces were all made from a clay form surrounded with regular concrete or mortar. The "2 bucks" furnace was my first use of an actual refractory formula. --Jan./16/2002
此页将详细说明了,我尝试一些难治性的公式。我以前炉都是定期制成混凝土或砂浆包围的粘土形式。 “2蚊”炉是我的一个实际耐火材料公式首次使用。 --Jan./16/2002

难治性部分秘诀
Refractory component tips
cementtypes.JPG
"Masonry cement" (on the left) is not the same as "Portland cement". Portland cement is plain cement powder and specifically says Portland cement.
Masonry cement is a mixture of Portland cement and sand. It may also contain other components (admixtures) to provide a certain characteristic such as waterproofing agents, colors etc. In some cases you only need to add water to masonry cement mixtures.“砌筑水泥”(左边)是不一样的“波特兰水泥”。普通硅酸盐水泥是水泥粉,具体说,硅酸盐水泥。
砌筑水泥是水泥和沙子的混合物。它可能还包含(外加剂)其他元件提供某种特性,如防水剂,颜色等在某些情况下,你只需要加水至砌筑水泥混合物。
fireclay.JPG
Fireclay is usually (at least where I buy it) sold in 50lbs (about 23kg) plain packages and they don't even say "fireclay" on them. I get it from a place that exclusively sells masonry supplies for $8.00 (2002 prices). I've never been to a ceramics supply place so I can't say whether or not they sell it. Whip out your phone book and call if your wondering, in fact maybe I'll do that.
Another type of clay is Bentonite clay. I haven't been able to find any where I'm at. I've read that it's available from feed stores and farm supply places. Kitty litter is bentonite clay. But unless you have a big rock tumbler or ball mill I don't expect anyone to use this source. Anyone willing to grind enough kitty litter by hand is a much more patient person them me. I've tried using it whole but it didn't work, however I think I might know a way.

火泥通常(至少在我买它)在五十〇英镑出售(约23公斤)普通包裹,他们甚至不说“他们粘土质”。我从一个地方,专门的售价为8.00美元(2002年价格计算),砖石供给。我从来没有去过的地方陶瓷供应,所以我不能说他们是否出售。你的电话本,并要求如果你想知道鞭,其实也许我会那样做。
另一种类型是粘土膨润土。我还没有找到任何地方,我在。我读过,它从商店和农场的饲料供应的地方可用。小鹰垃圾是膨润土。但是,除非你有一个大石头玻璃杯或球磨机我不希望任何人使用这个来源。任何人都愿意用手工研磨足够小鹰垃圾是一个更耐心的人有我。我试过使用它整个但没有工作,但是我想我可能知道的方式。
perlite.JPG
Perlite is a light-weight odorless, sterilized, heat-expanded volcanic mineral. It's used in potting soil to loosen and aerate the soil resulting in strong, branched root development. This is vital to vegetable seedlings because... oh wait, we're talking about refractory...
The reason it's so good for refractory formulas is because it doesn't conduct heat very well (heat doesn't pass through readily). A similar product is called "vermiculite" it's added to potting soil because it retains moisture. This quality makes it undesirable for refractory.
珍珠岩是一种重量轻,无臭,消毒,热膨胀火山矿物。它采用盆栽土壤松动和曝气土壤强,根系发育造成的分枝。这是非常重要的蔬菜秧苗,因为...噢等等,我们谈论的耐火...
它之所以在如此良好的耐火公式是因为它没有很好地传导热量(热不容易通过)。类似的产品被称为“石”它添加到盆栽土壤,因为它保持水分。这种品质使难治性不可取的。
 楼主| 发表于 2009-10-16 09:23:54 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 sven 于 2009-10-16 09:28 编辑

I wanted a small propane fired furnace for efficient aluminum and bronze melts. I figured that the coffee can furnace mentioned elswhere on the internet was too small, but metal 12 quart buckets seemed just right for my 4" diameter crucible. -- Jan./15/2002  我想要一个小丙烷发射高效铝和铜熔化炉。我计算过,咖啡炉中提到可以在互联网上elswhere太小了,但金属十二夸脱桶似乎对我的4“直径坩埚恰到好处。
bucket1_formrolling.JPG
The form to leave the inner core of the furnace is rolled from several pieces of cardboard taped together. The inner core will be 6 1/2 inches diameter which will hold my 4" crucible nicely. The forms are rolled over 6" coffee cans.  该表格离开炉子的内芯是由纸板件数录音带一起推出。内核直径为6 1 / 2英寸直径,将暂缓我4“坩埚很好。形式是结转6”咖啡罐。
bucket1_pipeform.JPG
This is the burner support pipe. I used a method called "parallel line development" to make the paper template which tells me where to cut the pipe so it will contour with the inside of the refractory.   这是燃烧器支撑管。我用所谓“平行线发展”的方法,使文件范本,它告诉我在哪里,削减管道因此它外形与内部的耐火材料。
bucket1_sparks.JPG
Here I am cutting the contour on the pipe with a small handheld grinder and cutting wheel. It's a cheap imported "no-name" brand but works very well. I bought it for $13.00 at a flea market. If I waited 'til I got to a booth 20 feet away I'd have gotten it for $10.00! The cutting wheel is a name brand wheel however.   在这里,我就减少了小型手持磨床砂轮管轮廓。这是一种廉价的“无名”的牌子,但工作得非常好。我买了$ 13.00在一个跳蚤市场。如果我等待着为新台币我到20英尺之外我不得不变得$ 10.00它的展位!切割砂轮是名牌但是车轮。
bucket1_bucketsprepped.JPG
At last both buckets are prepped and ready for refractory. Notice how the "burner support pipe" contours to the inside form.
These buckets are galvanized and I recommend non-galvanized if you can find them. But from my experience the outside of the furnace doesn抰 get hot enough to vaporize the zinc and release toxic fumes.  在最后两水桶prepped和难治性好。注意如何“刻录机支持管道”轮廓到内部形成。
这些桶是镀锌,我建议非镀锌如果你能找到它们。但是,从我的经验,在炉膛doesn抰足够外热蒸发锌和释放有毒烟雾。
bucket1_refractorymix1.JPG
The refractory mix is composed of Portland cement, silica sand, perlite and fireclay. The first three components are mixed together thoroughly then moistened and then the fireclay is mixed in. The formula was inspired by Jeffrey Bell's success but the proportions are way different.    难治性组合是由波特兰水泥,石英砂,珍珠岩和耐火粘土。前三个组成部分是混合在一起,然后彻底湿润,然后火泥是英寸混合公式的灵感来自杰弗里贝尔的成功,但比重有所不同。
bucket1_refrac_base.JPG
This is the base of the furnace. The hole will be a drainage hole in case of spills or broken/burned thru crucibles. The dowel pieces are split in half and will leave a trench in the refractory leading to the hole.
These trenches will allow spilled metal to access the hole rather than being blocked when a "plinth" block or piece of brick is set on the base to hold the crucible.   这是该炉的基础。该洞是一个排水孔的泄漏或破损的情况下/通过坩埚烧毁。件的销子***成两半,将留下一个战壕中的难治性导致洞。
这些壕沟将使波及金属访问洞,而不是被封锁时,“基座”块或一块砖是在基地设置举行的熔炉。
bucket1_refrac_bothfull.JPG
Both furnace halves are nice and full of refractory.   两种炉半非常好,和耐火充分
bucket1_refrac_noforms1.JPG
After a day and a half of curing I removed the forms. They can be pulled out by gripping the cardboard with pliers as a partner holds the furnace down. Or you can do as I did and stand on the furnace barefoot (so not to damage the refractory with the treads of your footwear) and pull. The moist tube will come out like a spiraling ribbon bringing the can with it.  经过一天的治疗我删除形式的一半。它们可以拉着夹持与作为合作伙伴钳纸板出持有炉了。或者你可以像我一样和赤脚站在炉(所以不要损坏与您的鞋类踏板耐火)和拉。潮湿的管道将出来像一个螺旋式并带来了能够剪彩。
bucket1_refrac_baseview.JPG
Here's a closer look at the base. Notice how nicely the burner support pipe contours with the inside wall.   以下是在该基地一探究竟。请注意很好地燃烧器支持与管道内壁的轮廓。
bucket1_burnerassembly.JPG
Instead of the traditional method of using set screws tapped into the burner support pipe to hold the burner tight I decided to make a small collar to fit around my burner. The collar has welds along the sides which have been ground down just enough to let it slide in and out of the pipe smoothly while keeping the burner centered!   取而代之的是使用到刻录机支持管道挖定螺丝举行燃烧紧,我决定做一个小白领迁就我的燃烧器的传统方法。衣领已沿着已地上只足够让它滑进出管道的顺利,同时保持双方焊接燃烧器中心!
 楼主| 发表于 2009-10-16 09:30:33 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 sven 于 2009-10-16 09:32 编辑

bucket2_plinth.JPG
Here you can see the "plinth" (crucible holder) in the bottom of the furnace. Notice the trench forms extending from below the plinth. The refractory has been curing for about 4 1/2 days at this point and is very hard (but not rock hard).
I let the concrete in it cure for a day uncovered, then I covered it with a plastic bag for the remaining 3 1/2 days while spritzing water on it with a spray bottle every once in awhile.   在这里您可以看到“基座”(坩埚持有人在炉底)。请注意海沟形式,从下面的基座延伸。在耐火材料已固化约4 1 / 2天了这一点,就很难(但不硬摇滚)。
我让在它治愈了一天发现,我所用,其余3 1塑料袋/ 2天,而具体的spritzing它水喷雾瓶一会儿每一次。
bucket2_cardboardring.JPG
Here is the bottom half of the furnace with crucible set in. Take a gander at how I rebuilt this crucible. The cardboard ring will prevent the lid's refractory from fusing to the base's refractory. I'm not really sure if it was necessary though.
The crucible is in there because I looked at it this way... Since the furnace has to get up to melting temperature to harden the lining I might as well slap a crucible in there and get a melt or two!   下面是用坩埚炉下半部设定英寸一眼我是如何重建这个熔炉一鹅。纸板环将防止盖子从融合耐火材料基地的耐火材料。我不太知道这是必须的。
该坩埚是因为我看着它这样在那里...由于炉要起床熔融温度硬化衬砌所以我也掌有一个坩埚熔化并获得一两个!
bucket2_furnaceburning.JPG
Here's what the furnace looks like with both halves together. Isn't it a beaut! I attached a temporary bucket handle (from the bucket as a matter of fact) until I build the lifting mechanism.
The Adventure begins
At first I was using the Oliver-upwind burner with a flare. The furnace was blazing nicely (except for a slight amount of sputtering) for about a minute when suddenly there was just a PSSSSSS... Good grief! The flame went out. I switched the propane off, removed the furnace lid and blew through the burner support pipe to clear out propane. I ignited it again and about a minute later it went out again! At this point I'm worrying that there is a flaw in the furnace design and burner cutoffs will be a constant problem! Without clearing the air in the furnace (bad idea) I reignited the burner and was greeted by a FFFFFFWWWWWOOOOOPP BLOOOOF! Complete with jet of fire ripping out the vent hole. It sounded very much like a cannon, or more specifically a "spud gun" (a.k.a. spudzooka, a.k.a. potato cannon) if you know what those are. Lesson #1: ALWAYS ventilate the furnace if the burner flame extinguishes.
I decided to remove the flare and try the burner without it. To my surprise it burned perfectly without even sputtering. Hey! Those guys are right, you don't always need a flare inside a furnace. I've been having trouble with that particular flare anyways since I've rolled and re-rolled it so many times its no longer concentric. I began thinking that the crucible and scrap metal would absorb to much heat and prevent the refractory from totally curing. So I took it out and the burner started sputtering. I began adjusting the regulator and sliding the burner in and out to adjust it but the sputtering just got worse. In fact jets of flame began shooting out the burner support pipe toward my hand each time it sputtered. Needless to say, that's when I stopped adjusting it! The burner went out and I quickly shut off the propane and figured that removing the crucible must make the chamber to wide open for the burner to keep burning without a flare. So I put the crucible back in.
I reignited the furnace and the freak'n burner went out again! Now I'm worrying again. I readjusted the regulator and slid the burner in and out a bit and suddenly there was a beautiful, smooth, FFFFFFRRRRRRRR and the burner continued to burn that perfectly for the rest of the melt! Whew.
下面是熔炉希望与这两个方面共同期待。这难道不是一种beaut!本人重视临时桶柄(从作为事实上桶),直到我解除机制建设。
探险开始
起初,我用的是奥利弗与一个耀斑上风刻录机。该炉是燃烧的很好(除了轻微的溅射量)约1分钟时,突然出现只是一个PSSSSSS...哎哟!火焰熄灭了。我换了丙烷关闭,取消了炉盖,通过管道爆炸燃烧器的支持来清理丙烷。本人再次点燃约一分钟后,这又出去了!在这一点上,我担心是有在炉内燃烧器的设计和缺陷截止时间将是一个长期存在的问题!如果没有清除炉膛(坏主意)我重新点燃燃烧器,由一FFFFFFWWWWWOOOOOPPBLOOOOF迎来了空气!完全与撷取出气孔消防飞机。这听起来很象是大炮,或者更具体的“开钻枪”(又名spudzooka,又名土豆炮),如果你知道这些的。课#1:总是通风,如果燃烧炉火焰熄灭。
我决定删除耀斑并尝试没有它的燃烧器。令我感到吃惊的是,甚至没有被烧毁溅射完美。嗨!那些家伙是正确的,你并不总是需要一个熔炉内爆发。我一直在与该问题爆发以来,特别是我和重新推出反正热轧过很多次了其不再同心。我开始以为坩埚和废金属将吸收到的热量,防止完全固化的耐火材料。因此,我拿出来燃烧器开始溅射。我开始调整调节器和滑动,进出燃烧器的调整,但溅射只是变得更糟。事实上,在火焰冒出的飞机开始对我的手每次溅射燃烧器支撑管。不用说,就在那个时候我停止调整了!燃烧炉走了出去,我赶紧切断丙烷和揣摩,取消坩埚必须会议厅敞开的燃烧保持无弹燃烧。因此,我把坩埚重新登录
余点燃炉子,freak'n燃烧又出去了!现在,我担心了。本人调整监管和下滑的进出燃烧一下,突然有一个美丽的,平滑,FFFFFFRRRRRRRR和燃烧继续燃烧要完全为熔体休息!噢。
 楼主| 发表于 2009-10-16 09:32:17 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 sven 于 2009-10-16 09:38 编辑

bucket2_furnacesmoking.JPG
In this pic the cardboard ring and the cardboard vent and drainage hole forms are burning out. Within 15 minutes I had some nice molten aluminum. As it was melting away I hurried off to finish welding a large ingot mold from heavy angle iron. Suddenly I hear; FFFFFFWWWWWOOOOOPP THIDUUUUD (a dull thud) and the furnace is rocked! I race over to check the burner thinking the furnace backfired again only to notice the burner was fine but...
bucket2_damage.JPG
A chunk of refractory had blown out the lining! Here is a picture of it after the furnace run. I must have left a void in the refractory and steam blew a chunk out. Lesson #2: Ram your refractory thoroughly! I kept the furnace going because I wanted to melt a garbage can full of lawn chair aluminum tubing that's been taking up space in the basement.
Oh well, at least I still have my crucible I worked so hard to rebuild...
bucket2_spilledmetal.JPG
OH NO! The crucible burned thru and metal is spilling out the drainage hole! If I actually expected to NEED the drainage hole on the FIRST run with this furnace I'd have put a container of sand under it!
At least I know the trenches and drainage hole works... Note to self; Buy driveway patch on next trip to Home Depot...
bucket2_holeincrucible.JPG
Here is the crucible with a solidified pool of metal still sticking to it as if to mock me. It all came thru a hole in the weld area that抯 been plaguing this crucible. I've tried to weld it shut several times. In fact I tried to weld it shut only minutes before this furnace run!
bucket2_damage2.JPG
After cleaning the furnace out I noticed that the damage isn't that bad. I can easily mix up some more refractory to patch the spot and the furnace will be good as new. I'm not sure if the void was in the top or the bottom but it blew a corresponding chunk out the opposite half!
The rest of the refractory is rock hard with only minor cracking! Notice the drainage trenches. The flame was so hot it vaporized the forms. I didn't even find carbon residue from them.
bucket2_plinthglass.JPG
The flame was so hot that the sand in the side of the plinth that was in contact with the flame turned to green glass! And feels similar to ceramic glazing! Some of it even dripped and fused to the furnace base.
bucket2_extraplinths.JPG
Here are extra plinths I made from the remaining refractory. The used one is in the front on the left.
 楼主| 发表于 2009-10-16 09:42:51 | 显示全部楼层

Here's the base of the furnace with a 2 pound load of molten aluminum at 3:00AM (I couldn't wait!). This thing gets hot really fast! The crucible was loaded with a 2 pound block of aluminum and I was pouring it 18 minutes after lighting the furnace!
No flare is used on the burner while it's in the furnace.   下面是一个炉子在上午03点的铝液二磅负荷基地(我不能等待!)。这个东西变热真快!该坩埚装载着一铝2英镑块,我是浇炉后,灯光,18分钟!
没有耀斑是在燃烧器使用,而它在炉内的。

Here I am lifting the crucible out with my new tongs that I hurriedly threw together. No reaching in for the crucible with pliers on this monster. Hey wait a minute! I'm indoors (But with plenty of ventilation and on a fire resistant floor). The basement just barely edged out the living room.  在这里,我取消我的坩埚内,我赶紧扔起来的新堂。没有达到的关于这一怪物钳子熔炉。嘿且慢!我室内(但随着大量的通风和抗火层)。地下室勉强击败了客厅。

Here I'm pouring some ingots. Almost need a welding helmet to look at the crucible.
Oops, I'm breaking the "rules" by wearing short sleaves! Sometimes you can get overly comfortable...在这里,我倒有些锭。几乎需要电焊面罩看看熔炉。
哎呀,我打破了“规则”一身短sleaves!有时你可以过于舒适...

These are the ingots and here's also that ingot mold I said I was welding together.这是块,这里的还钢锭模我说我是焊接在一起。

This is the furnace run that provided the metal for the lathe project's splitnut casting. It's taken at about 11:00PM. That little flame on the side is peaking out a gap in the furnace halve's refractory.这是运行该规定的车床项目splitnut铸造金属的熔炉。最近几年,大约下午11时。这侧面小火焰已经见顶了在炉内的差距减半的耐火材料。

In this picture I've poured the splitnut casting and am pouring some ingots with the remainder.在此我已经倒在splitnut铸造,浇注时,其余部分锭图片。
 楼主| 发表于 2009-10-16 09:43:20 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 sven 于 2009-10-16 09:49 编辑

2bucketmix1.JPG
The refractory mix is composed of Portland cement (1.5 parts), silica sand (2 parts), perlite (1.5 parts) and fireclay (2 parts). The first three components are mixed together thoroughly.
I used a 1-gallon bucket to measure the parts. Less than one bag of perlite was necessary for the bucket furnace and I had about a gallon and a quarter of refractory left over.
Tip: Build the body for a coffee can furnace and use the remaining refractory for that. Or mold the remainder into plinth blocks or bricks.
2bucketmix2.JPG
This is what the first three components look like when mixed.
2bucketmix3.JPG
After moistening the first part of the formula, the fireclay is added as seen on the right side.
2bucketmix4.JPG
Here is the refractory as I used it for my "2 bucks" furnace. The mixture was rather loose and gooey but it's as sticky as I don't know what. Rather sloppy to work with also. It should actually be mixed much drier. Keep it just moist enough to hold together neatly. Try for the texture of stiff cookie dough.
bucket_refrac_lidbase.JPG
This is what the above refractory looked like as I began lining the furnace body.
bucket_refrac_basefull.JPG
Here's another look at it.
发表于 2009-10-17 02:25:52 | 显示全部楼层
很实用~~~11
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