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[信息] 太阳能涂料及其他太阳能惊奇产品

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发表于 2008-12-10 05:02:22 | 显示全部楼层

太阳能涂料及其他太阳能惊奇产品

  文头: 摘译自2007年11月12日ENS美国,加州,柏克莱报导;林盈秀编译;蔡丽伶审校

  内文:

  太阳能涂料——只要涂在牆上、车上、或是船身上,就可以开始发电。化学工程师华迪亚(Cyrus Wadia)表示:「虽然今天这只是科幻小说裡会发生的事,但我们现在所做的一切都朝此方向发展。」

  华迪亚是柏克莱加州大学跨领域,能源与资源学群(Energy and Resources Group)的博士班学生,从商6年之后重返校园。他花大把时间在研究室,在三颈烧瓶中进行「合成超微奈米粒子」的实验。

  此项技术很简单,他指出:「任何在厨房觉得自在的人都能办到。」这些悬浮在溶液上的粒子直径小于10亿分之1公尺。

  华迪亚将溶液涂在玻璃表面,并分析其「光电流」,在接触到发光体之后,电流流过光感应仪器。

  由光电池效应而产生的电流,启动普通屋顶太阳能电池,这在美国四处皆可见。这些光电池直接将太阳光转换成电。

  奈米科技太阳能电池只发展短短数年。多伦多大学电机资讯工程学系教授萨金特(Ted Sargent)声明,他已开发出包含太阳能电池的塑胶奈米科技材料。柏克莱的研究将此项科技往前更进一步。

  透过奈米科技实验,华迪亚希望能找到天然的「极便宜、无毒、且丰富」,又合适于製造光电池的材料。他承认这种材料「可能不存在,但是我们必须去试。」

  他还表示:「因为我们将奈米材料加入溶液中,所以可将溶液当成涂料,你可以看到一面黄色的牆,但却是黄色的太阳能油漆。」

  传统的硅是光电池(PV)的基本材料,已经流通数十年,缺点是易损坏、重、及昂贵。在现今太阳能如此热门的情况下,柏克莱研究团队有意将太阳能科技推展到下个阶段,一些部分在改进「第一代硅光电池」,另一部分则是开发全新光转换科技。

  材料科学与工程学系教授哈勒(Eugene Haller)观察后发现:「过去几年,学生被所有能源相关材料引发极大兴趣,许多最优秀的申请者,都希望在这领域作研究计划。」

  Heading: Solar Paint and Other Solar Surprises

  Authorship: BERKELEY, California, November 12, 2007 (ENS)

  English Content:

  Solar paint - just paint it on your wall, car, boat - and you can start generating electricity. Chemical engineer Cyrus Wadia says, "Today this is science fiction; but everything we do is moving us toward that.

  A doctoral student with UC Berkeley's interdisciplinary Energy and Resources Group, Wadia came back to school after six years in business. He spends long hours in the lab "synthesizing super-small nanoparticles" in a three-necked flask.

  The technique is so simple, he says, "anyone who feels comfortable in a kitchen could do it." These particles, less than a billionth of a meter in diameter, are then suspended in solution.

  Wadia coats his solution on glass and analyzes his new device for "photocurrent," - the current that flows through a photosensitive device as the result of exposure to radiant power.

  The current occurs due to the photovoltaic effect that powers the common solar cells seen on rooftops across the United States. These photovoltaic arrays to convert light from the Sun directly into electricity.

  Nanotech solar cells are only a few years old. At the University of Toronto in 2005, electrical and computer engineering professor Ted Sargent announced that he had developed a new plastic nanotech material containing solar cells. The Berkeley research takes the technology a step farther.

  Through his nanotech experiments, Wadia hopes to identify a material that is "extremely cheap, non-toxic, and abundant" in nature and suitable for manufacturing photovoltaic cells. Such a material "may not exist," he admits, "but we have to try."

  "Nanomaterials, because we do them in solution, we could use that solution as a dye," Wadia says. "You could be looking at a wall that’s yellow, but that yellow is solar paints."

  Traditional silicon based photovoltaic, PV, cells have been around for decades, but they are fragile, heavy, and costly. Now solar is hot as Berkeley researchers attempt to bring solar technology to the next level, some by improving "first-generation" silicon-based PV, others by developing entirely new light-converting technologies.

  "In the past few years, student interest has risen dramatically in all energy-related matters, especially photovoltaics," observes Eugene Haller, professor of materials science and engineering. "Many of the best applicants to our graduate program want to work in this field."

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