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[技术] 做个简单的显微镜

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发表于 2013-10-20 01:27:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
做个简单的显微镜
西班牙文的,不会翻译,只能用(google在线翻译)转为英文给大家看了,能看明白得给大家解决一下,哦!

自制显微镜

自制显微镜

 楼主| 发表于 2013-10-20 01:29:02 | 显示全部楼层

THE MICROSCOPE Leeuwenhoek

自制显微镜

自制显微镜

A great deal of scientific discoveries in the last century (and even today) were made by amateurs.Leeuwenhoek was a simple cloth merchant. It used to work small "glass beads" to examine in detail fabrics.None of Leeuwenhoek's colleagues had the idea to observe other objects because maybe they thought it was not worth it. If however Leeuwenhoek, naturally had an insatiable curiosity and started looking all around.Examined saliva, blood, standing water, vinegar, beer and many other things. All of them were interesting, but standing water (the dirtier the better) was the best studied. Discovered and examined many microorganisms. Reports sent to the English Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society of London, who distributed these reports and the whole world learned of these findings
Thus the founder of microbiology was a simple fan of science, but the scientific community realized the importance of these findings only after decades. For larger extensions, Leeuwenhoek lenses made ever smaller, reaching manufacturing lenses 1 to 2 mm in diameter. These lenses are difficult to hold and focus and to avoid these problems Leeuwenhoek's held between two brass plates. I wanted to see placed on the tip of a screw, so that could be accurately regulate the distance between the object and the lens the observer had to bring the eye to the instrument and look through the lens.
This instrument was composed of a single lens. By the large curvature of the lens was very powerful and allowed 300X magnifications over nearly as much as a modern microscope. This microscope is called "simple microscope", because it is formed by a single lens. While Leeuwenhoek, an English physicist named Robert Hooke, had built a compound microscope, ie made of two lenses: the objective (going down) and the eye (where you look). However manufacturing techniques of the lenses was not perfect and therefore these microscopes had serious optical defects which made them less effective than simple microscopes.Only in the first half of the eighteenth century were refined compound microscopes.
Leeuwenhoek microscopes built hundred and some of these still exist and are kept in museums (fig. 1). Essentially, this instrument was easy to use and had a lighting system.
MICROSCOPE AND IS OUR Leeuwenhoek
In the 50s, in the magazine "Scientific American", DL rediscovered the old Stong Leeuwenhoek microscope and gave significant improvements. He adapted the use of slides and put a movable mirror for illumination. The most important innovation is building Stong glasses. While the tiny polished Leeuwenhoek biconvex lens manually, Stong used a much simpler procedure that was based on the surface tension of molten glass to obtain very accurate spherical lenses.He worked with glass rods and Bunsen burner, with which receives very good lenses. Some of the graphics you see in this note are the American author said.
In the magazine "Scienza & Vita" December '93, you can see a microscope made based on Stong, but with a different mechanism and other lighting system.
This microscope can reach magnifications up to 200X. What makes it very useful in the field for use by teachers of biology.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE MICROSCOPE
The microscope we are building can be divided into four parts:
-The optical part
- The focusing apparatus
- Support structure or portaplatina
- The lighting system
 楼主| 发表于 2013-10-20 01:29:50 | 显示全部楼层

自制显微镜

自制显微镜

To give you a better idea, you can see figures 1 and 2, if you want you can make changes. We already did a lot, some of which we'll tell you then.

自制显微镜

自制显微镜

The optical part is formed by the lens or objective. In this case a glass sphere with a diameter of about 1.2 mm to 2.5 mm which functions as a magnifying glass. Is very strong and must be maintained at a distance of a few millimeters of the objects we want to observe.
HOW DO THE LENS
Need to manufacture the lens (Fig. 4) a glass rod with a diameter of about 3 mm to 5 mm, a Bunsen burner and a pair of tweezers.
To reduce the formation of gas bubbles in the glass spheres, you should wash the glass rod with soap and water. Avoid hand contact by the middle of the rod.After adjusting the flame of the Bunsen burner, heat the central part of the rod while you spin between your fingers. When the glass is hot enough and soft, remove from the flame and pull firmly with both hands until a rod of about 0.3 m. It breaks the rod with the clip in the middle, without touching with fingers. Then on to the thin rod called notice that there is a small sphere, leave in the flame until it has a size of 1.5 mm to 2 mm. Then out of the mud and let the area cool. Now break the rod about 10 mm of the sphere. You will use this tail to strike the ball in place. Ensuring the spherical shape of the pellet is the surface tension of the molten glass. Although the gravitational force tends to deform the sphere to obtain good quality lenses you keep the dimensions we give. You will make about 10 small spheres, then examine with a magnifying glass to choose the one with the right dimensions and is free of air bubbles and other imperfections.
There will be traces of hydrocarbons in the glass sphere you made up, so you'll have to clean it with alcohol and a soft tissue. The power increase he aim is greater the lower is its size. How can you determine the power of magnification? Merely solving this equation: I = 333 / d, where I is the magnifying power and d is the diameter of the sphere in millimeters. For example for a sphere of 1.66 mm diameter will have a magnification of 200 X

自制显微镜

自制显微镜

 楼主| 发表于 2013-10-20 01:30:13 | 显示全部楼层

MECHANISM APPROACH
As we need to focus very carefully, the lens is attached to a metal plate connected to two screws. The first serves to focus and the second for fine adjustment.
The objective (lens) is placed on one of the sheets over a hole. In fig. 3 are the dimensions. The U shape gives stability to the two sheets.
As you can see in figures 2 and 3 the base of the lens is curved to give it more stability.

自制显微镜

自制显微镜

THE PORTAPLATINA
The portaplatina is simply a wooden box with two slits up the sides. It is fastened with glue and nails. The top should have a material like Formica, but not really necessary. What I should do is a hole about 10 mm in diameter to pass illuminator light. You must also make two holes for the screws.

自制显微镜

自制显微镜

 楼主| 发表于 2013-10-20 01:30:52 | 显示全部楼层

LIGHTING SYSTEM
This is a critical part because good lighting will allow us to see objects clearly. Sunlight does not work, so it's best to use a small flashlight bulb.

自制显微镜

自制显微镜

RIDING THE OBJECTIVE
The goal should be stuck under the blade of focus on the conical seat (fig3).
To paste the lens put a little paint on the tail nail (Fig. 5). Without touching the lens with your finger, you press it down slightly to remove spaces, in fact, if you spend some light at the edges, the sharpness of the image is greatly reduced.
USE OF THE MICROSCOPE
This instrument is used to observe transparent objects. For this reason it is best to choose small and transparent objects. You must place the object on a slide and cover with a coverslip (Fig. 6). Be careful when lowering the lens, do not get wet or dirty.

Turn the illuminator, the object placed in the center and place your eye as close as possible to the lens. Now focus using the screws until the image looks good (Fig. 7).
NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS
We could make a much simpler microscope, which I will show in a few days. If however these are some of the changes we made: the lens can get from a light bulb (or light bulb, as we say in Bolivia) flashlight. You must break all around so that the end have only lentecito. To use lighting lamp flashlight also powered by two batteries and placed under the hole where the lens.



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