[信息] 旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:37:06 | 显示全部楼层


Rotorwing "Sportsman"

Two-seat autogyro with a close-cockpit and a 85hp Continental C-85 engine. A production version with a 115hp engine was also planned.
*     *     *
Technical data for "Sportsman"
Engine: 1 x Continental C-85 pusher rated 85hp, rotor diameter: 7.3m, length: 3.6m, load: 200kg, maximum speed: 150km/h, minimum speed: 20km/h, range: 480km

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:38:12 | 显示全部楼层


SAIC/ATI Vigilante

Also involved with the Navy VTOL UAV demonstrations in 1998, the "Vigilante" began as an optionally piloted vehicle (OPV) that could be flown in three modes: manned, remote pilot, or intelligent autopilot/mission control system. Developed jointly by SAIC (Science Applications International Corporation) and ATI (Advanced Technologies Inc.), the Vigilante is based on the Ultrasport Model 496 experimental helicopter kit (manufactured by ATI抯 American Sportscopter division), a 2-seater with a Hirth 95hp engine and a useful load of 260kg. Originally created for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide a stable, unmanned platform for an optical camera to monitor anti-ballistic missile tests, the airframe known as Vigilante 496 has since been modified for Navy requirements.
After abandoning the land-based Navy trials of the Vigilante 496 in 1998 due to flight control system problems, ATI and SAIC took the aircraft back to the design stage in an effort to overcome these problems and compete for the recent VTUAV contract. The new Vigilante 500 model includes an improved flight control system, a new airframe with a smaller streamlined shell for reduced drag, improved efficiency and reduced radar cross section. A heavy fuel engine required for Navy use was also planned, and the aircraft redesignated the Vigilante 600. The Vigilante was projected to have an endurance of 16 hours, a radius of operation at 925km, and a top speed of 250km/h. SAIC chose not to submit a proposal for the VTUAV competition, citing what they considered to be a "punitive" contract fee arrangement. However, the "Vigilante" will be used as the flight demonstration vehicle for a recently awarded NASA Revolutionary Concepts (REVCON) program investigating the feasibility of "swashplateless" helicopter flight.

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:38:55 | 显示全部楼层


Scheutzow B

Webb Scheutzow designed a small two-seat helicopter with a patented low-cost 'Flexihub' rotor head which relied on rubber mountings for the two main rotor blades and required no lubrication. The Scheutzow B was a side-by-side two seat helicopter with the classic layout of an enclosed fibreglass cabin, an engine in the centre section, tubular open frame rear boom and a fixed skid undercarriage. The prototype, N564A, flew on 26 January 1967, followed by three further examples, but the type failed to gain a Type Certificate and development was abandoned in the early 1970s.
R.Simpson "Airlife's Helicopter and Rotorcraft", 1998

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:39:28 | 显示全部楼层


Seibel S-2

Single-seat open-cockpit helicopter, reg. ? NX7359. First flown in 1947.

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:40:05 | 显示全部楼层


Seibel S-4 "Skyhawk" / YH-24

The Seibel Helicopter Company was formed in 1947 by Charles M. Seibel, an engineer formerly employed by Bell Helicopter, and the S-4A Sky Hawk was the second of the firm's designs to fly. Both the Army and the Air Force expressed interest in the Sky Hawk, and in 1951 the Army ordered two examples for operational and engineering evaluation in the observation, utility and aeromedical evacuation roles. The machines were delivered near the end of 1951, designated YH-24, and assigned the serial numbers 51-5112 and -5113,
The YH-24 was of extremely simple welded steel-tube construction, and was unique in having a stepped, two-deck fuselage structure. The long lower deck supported the pilot's seat and control panel, as well as a small passenger/cargo area that was unobstructed and accessible from the rear. The shorter upper deck, directly above the passenger/cargo area, carried the craft's single 125hp Lycoming engine, fuel and oil tanks, and the complete main rotor assembly. A tapered alloy tail boom was attached to the rear of the upper deck, and carried a two-bladed anti-torque rotor at its tip. The pilot's position and passenger/ cargo area were not normally enclosed, though they were provided with roll-down fabric and clear plastic panels for use in bad weather. During the course of the Army's evaluation, the fuselage of the second YH-24 (51-5113) was shortened and widened to allow the installation of a co-pilot's seat beside that of the pilot, and the machine was later fitted with skid landing gear in place of its original wheeled tricycle undercarriage.
Though a relatively robust and easily maintained aircraft, the YH-24 was ultimately judged to be unsuitable for Army service, primarily because its load-carrying ability was considered to be too limited to successfully accomplish the aeromedical evacuation and general utility tasks for which it had been evaluated. The two YH-24 prototypes were subsequently dropped from the Army inventory during the latter part of 1952.
S.Harding "U.S.Army Aircraft since 1947", 1990

Technical data for Seibel YH-24
Engine: 1 x Lycoming O-290-D pistone engine, rated at 95kW, main rotor diameter: 8.88m, fuselage length: 8.48m, height: 3.05m, take-off weight: 695kg, empty weight: 430kg, max speed: 105km/h, cruising speed: 93km/h, service ceiling: 1310m

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:40:58 | 显示全部楼层


Sikorsky S-1

Igor Sikorsky's first attempt at building a helicopter. The airframe was a wire-braced wooden cage, enclosing a 25hp Anzani engine. Co-axial steel shafts carried the two contra-rotating rotors, each with two blades comprising wooden ribs with linen covering. Two months of testing in the summer of 1909, including at least one narrow escape when the helicopter almost capsized on him while at maximum rpm, convinced the young designer that it was too heavy to become airborne with such an inadequate power plant.
John W.R. Taylor "Images of America - Sikorsky", 1998
*     *     *The S-1 was the first attempt by I.I.Sikorsky to build a flying machine. It was a helicopter with two coaxial two-bladed propellers (upper 4.6m diameter, lower - 5.0m).
Tested, but failed to take off - falling on one side.

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:41:49 | 显示全部楼层


Sikorsky S-2

Built and tested in February to May 1910, Sikorsky's second helicopter was more sophisticated than the first, with a welded steel-tube airframe and three-blade rotors with metal spars. The emphasis was still entirely on achieving lift, with only collective pitch control of the rotors and no provision for horizontal flight controls. Again the helicopter's weight proved too much for the 25hp Anzani. Sikorsky decided to postpone further rotating-wing research, as his first fixed-wing design, the BIS-1, was ready for testing.
John W.R. Taylor "Images of America - Sikorsky", 1998
*     *     *The S-2 was a helicopter with two three-bladed counter-rotating propellers. Underpowered aircraft was able to take off... but without a pilot.
Russian Aviation Museum
Technical data for S-2
Engine: 1 x Anzani rated at 18.4kW, main rotor diameter: 6.55m, take-off weight: 270kg, empty weight: 182kg

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:42:44 | 显示全部楼层


Vought-Sikorsky VS-300

Russian-born Igor Sikorsky built his first helicopter, powered by a 25hp Anzani engine, in 1909. It would not leave the ground, and a second machine, completed in 1910, was little better; it did rise a short distance, but was incapable of lifting a pilot, and Sikorsky turned his attention to fixed-wing aeroplanes. After the 1917 Revolution he left the country, settling in the United States some two years later, and soon entering the aircraft industry of his new country. In 1938, when he was Engineering Manager of the Vought-Sikorsky Division of United Aircraft Corporation, years of study and research into rotary-wing flight problems were rewarded when the directors of U.A.C. agreed to let him try once again to build a practical helicopter. The VS-300, as the project was named, was designed and built during the first half of 1939, and on 14 September Sikorsky was at the controls when the aircraft made its first vertical take-off. At this stage the aircraft was still tethered to the ground and had weights suspended underneath it to help keep it stable. It was powered by a 4-cylinder Lycoming engine of 75hp, had full cyclic pitch control for the main rotor and a single anti-torque tail rotor at the end of a narrow enclosed tailboom which also supported a large under-fin. The cyclic control was not fully satisfactory, however, and by the time the VS-300 made its first free flight on 13 May 1940 (now powered by a 90hp Franklin motor) the configuration had changed to an open-framework steel-tube fuselage with outriggers at the tail end. Each of these mounted a horizontally-rotating airscrew to provide better lateral control; the vertical tail screw was retained.
By mid-1940 the VS-300 was staying airborne for 15 min. at a time, and on 6 May 1941 it beat the world endurance record held by the Fw.61 by staying aloft for 1 hr. 32 min. 26.1 sec. Various modifications were made during 1940-41, the most important being the replacement of the tail outriggers in June 1941 by a short vertical pylon carrying a single horizontal tail rotor, and the reinstatement in December of a now fully satisfactory cyclic pitch control for the main rotor. Other alterations concerned the arrangement of the main undercarriage and the fitting of nose and tail wheels in place of skids. In April 1941 Sikorsky made a successful take-off from water by fitting pneumatic flotation bags under the main undercarriage wheels. In its final form the VS-300 had a 150hp Franklin engine, a fabric-covered fuselage and a tricycle undercarriage.
Testing continued throughout 1942 (by which time development of Sikorsky's first production helicopter, the R-4, was well advanced), and in 1943 the VS-300 was delivered to the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, where it is still housed today.
The first practical helicopters, in the sense that they accomplished satisfactorily manoeuvres that we now take for granted - vertical take-off and landing, hovering, and forward, backward and sideways flight - were the Breguet-Dorand and the Fw.61. The VS-300 accomplished more, by paving the way for production aircraft that could carry a useful load and perform a productive job of work. The general manager of Sikorsky Aircraft, Lee S. Johnson, summed up its contribution twenty years later when he said: 'Before Igor Sikorsky flew the VS-300, there was no helicopter industry; after he flew it, there was."
K.Munson "Helicopters And Other Rotorcraft Since 1907", 1968
Photo Gallery

An intermediate version of the VS-300 with Igor Sikorsky at the controls. The sign on the rear fuselage reads "VOUGHT-SIKORSKY VS-300, Stratford, Connecticut"

Upward-angled rear outriggers reveal another VS-300 configuration by the spring of 1941.

Igor Sikorsky, wearing his trademark Homburg, at the controls of the VS-300A. The aircraft had just set a world endurance record of 1 hour and 32.5 minutes.

Sikorsky sets a world record by keeping the VS-300 aloft 1 hour and 32 minutes on May 6, 1941.

The VS-300 in its final configuration at the end of 1941.

A VS-300A being flown by Igor Sikorsky on 16 March 1942. This aircraft was generally similar to the first VS-300 but had a completely enclosed fuselage. Note that the right wheel (white circle) has fallen off, and almost hit the person on the ground.

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:43:06 | 显示全部楼层


Sikorsky R-4

The Sikorsky R-4, or VS-316A, was a definitive development of Igor Sikorsky's successful pre-war VS-300, and in 1944 became the first helicopter in the world to be placed in series production. Like the VS-300, it had a framework of heavy-gauge steel tube, and all but the extreme rear end of the fuselage was fabric-covered, as were the 10.97m diameter main rotor blades. A completely new feature was the fully-enclosed cabin, with side-by-side seating and dual controls for the 2-man crew. Powered by a 165hp Warner R-500-3 engine, the prototype VS-316A flew for the first time on 13 January 1942; later, with the military designation XR-4 and serial number 41-18874, the aircraft was handed over to the USAAF for evaluation. It arrived at Wright Field, Ohio, on 18 May 1942, having completed, in stages, the 1225km trip from Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 16 hr. 10 min. flying time. Later in 1942 an order was placed for three service test YR-4A's with 180hp R-550-1 engines and main rotors of 11.58m diameter, and similar changes were made to the XR-4 in 1943, after which it was redesignated XR-4C. Other 1943 developments included the first-ever landing by a helicopter on a ship at sea (the tanker Bunker Hill) and the production of twenty-seven pre-series YR-4B's for further evaluation by the USAAF, the U.S. Navy (three), U.S. Coast Guard (three) and the RAF (seven). These were generally similar to the YR-4A's except for an enlarged cabin, and were used inter alia for winterisation and tropical trials in Alaska and Burma. In the latter theatre one of the YR-4B's carried out the first recorded casualty evacuation operation by helicopter.
One hundred production R-4B's were built, similar to the YR-4B except for a more powerful engine; thirty-five were delivered to the USAAF for observation and liaison duties, and twenty to the U.S. Navy as HNS-1 reconnaissance and air/sea rescue aircraft. The remaining forty-five were supplied to Great Britain under Lend-Lease, most of them going to the Royal Navy. The R-4B was known in British service as the Hoverfly I. In the RAF the Hoverfly I replaced the Rota (Cierva C.30A) autogiros of No.529 Squadron from August 1944, and some were supplied to the Helicopter Training School at Andover early in 1945. By the end of the year the type had passed out of RAF service, some aircraft being allocated for radar calibration work with the Telecommunications Research Establishment; others undertook snow and flood reporting duties, and one was allocated to the King's Flight to carry mail and freight. The Joint Experimental Helicopter Unit, established in 1954, was equipped initially with R-4B and R-6A helicopters handed on from the Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm. The R-4 did not enjoy a long service career, either in Britain or the United States, being supplanted in the early post-war years by the Sikorsky S-51 and its British-built equivalent, the Westland Dragonfly. Those still in American service were redesignated H-4B in 1948.
K.Munson "Helicopters And Other Rotorcraft Since 1907", 1968

Technical data for R-4
Crew: 1, passengers: 1, engine: 1 x Warner R-550 rated at 134kW, main rotor diameter: 11.6m, length: 14.7m, height: 3.8m, take-off weight: 1152kg, empty weight: 952kg, max speed: 132km/h, cruising speed: 105km/h, rate of climb: 3.3m/s, service ceiling: 2340m, range: 370km

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:43:37 | 显示全部楼层


Sikorsky R-5 / HO2S

The first helicopter to be built in large numbers was a derivative of the Sikorsky R-5, which started out as a tandem two-seater. The first of five prototypes flew on 18 August 1943 powered by a 450hp Wasp Junior radial. This was followed by 25 YR-5A pre-production models, two of which were assigned to the Navy under the designation HO2S-1. While production of the R-5A was getting under way (34 built), five pre-series aircraft were converted into the R-5E, which had dual control, while at least 20 modified R-5As were later given new, 600hp Wasp Junior engines and redesignated R-5D. From the latter, the S-51 was developed, with a slightly enlarged four-seat cabin and a tricycle landing gear. The first commercial helicopter designed by Sikorsky, it first flew on 16 February 1946 and was certified a month later by the Civil Aviation Agency and delivered to the first customer in August. It was sold to United Air Lines and Los Angeles Airways.
A total of 300 S-51s were built, some with 450hp engines, others with 600hp engines and larger diameter three-blade rotors. The military versions were designated R-5F (11 to the USAF), H-5G (38 fitted with a rescue hoist), H-5H (17 with amphibious wheel/pontoon landing gear), HO3S-1 and S2 (90 in all, naval rescue version). The S-51 had a three-blade articulated rotor, the blades of which could be folded back to facilitate stowage. The first aircraft had manual pitch control; this was later replaced by a hydraulic system. The cabin diameter was also increased.
In 1947, Westland acquired the license to build the S-51 in Britain and produced 139 up to 1953. The British version, named the Dragonfly, had a 550hp Alvis Leonides engine.
G.Apostolo "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters", 1984

Technical data for R-5A
Crew: 1, passengers: 1, engine: 1 x Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-5 rated at 336kW, rotor diameter: 14.6m, fuselage length: 12.4m, height: 3.9m, take-off weight: 2220kg, empty weight: 1715kg, max speed: 145km/h, cruising speed: 130km/h, rate of climb: 4.4m/s, service ceiling: 4300m, range: 370km

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