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[信息] 旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:54:38 | 显示全部楼层

Re:旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)

Developed to meet a 1957 US Navy requirement for a high-performance ASW helicopter with boat-type hull and retractable landing gear, and all-weather capability. Designated S-61 (HSS-2), the prototype first flew on 11 March 1959; seven preproduction aircraft (YHSS-2) successfully completed service trials in 1960. US Navy ordered initial 10 S-61B/HSS-2 for delivery starting September 1961. Aircraft redesignated SH-3A Sea King in 1962. Also produced under licence by Agusta, Mitsubishi and Westland. VERSIONS S-61A: Amphibious transport, generally similar to the US Navy's SH-3A. Accommodation for 26 troops, 15 litters, cargo, or 12 passengers in VIP configuration. General Electric T58 turboshaft engines standard, but Rolls-Royce Gnome H.1200 offered as alternative.
S-61A-4: Export version for Malaysia; first ordered on 26 October 1970, known locally as Nuri.
S-61B: Initial production version with amphibious capability.
S-61D: Export version of SH-3D.
S-61D-4: For Argentine Navy; ordered in 1971.
S-61F: Experimental high-speed version with stub wings and auxiliary turbojets.
S-61L: Non-amphibious commercial version with modified landing gear, rotor head and stabiliser. First flight of prototype 6 December 1960; FAA certification 2 November 1961.
S-61L Mk II: Improved version with more powerful 1,118 kW (1,500 shp) CT58-140-2 turboshaft engines; individual cargo bins; enhanced vibration damping. Accommodation increased to 30 passengers.
S-61N: Similar to S-61L, but with sealed hull and stabilising floats (as on SH-3A) for amphibious operations. First flight 7 August 1962.
S-61N Mk II: Improved version with more powerful CT58-140-2 engines; individual cargo bins; enhanced vibration damping. Accommodation increased to 26 passengers.
S-61R: Development of S-61B; introduced many design changes, including rear loading ramp and new landing gear.
AS-61N1 Silver: Licence-built version of S-61N, with slightly shorter fuselage and greater range, by Agusta in Italy.
AS-61R Pelican: Licence-built multipurpose SAR version by Agusta in Italy.
ASH-3D/TS: Licence-built VIP transport version by Agusta in Italy.
ASH-3D: Licence-built multirole naval version built by Agusta in Italy.
CH-3B: Version of S-61A operated by USAF for missile site support and drone recovery duties.
CH-3C/E: Transport version of S-61R for USAF.
CH-124 (formerly CHSS-2): Anti-submarine helicopter similar to SH-3A, delivered to the Canadian forces in May 1963.


HH-3A: Modified version of SH-3A for Search and Rescue duties, with T58-GE-8F turboshaft engines, two electrically powered minigun turrets, high-speed refuelling and dumping system, rescue hoist, upgraded avionics, external auxiliary fuel tanks and armour installation.
HH-3E: Version of S-61R for US Aerospace rescue and recovery service.
HH-3F: Version of S-61R for US Coast Guard.
RH-3A: Conversion of nine SH-3As for mine countermeasures duty with US Navy.
SH-3A (formerly HSS-2) Sea King: Initial amphibious ASW version for US Navy; powered by 932kW General Electric T58-GE-8B turboshaft engines.
SH-3D Sea King: More powerful ASW development of SH-3A for US Navy, with 1,043kW T58-GE-10 engines and an additional 530 litres of fuel. First delivered in 1966.
SH-3G: US Navy conversion of 105 SH-3As into utility helicopters. Six equipped with minigun pods for SAR missions.
SH-3H: Multipurpose version of SH-3A and SH-3G with two T58-GE-10 turboshafts; later converted for ASW and anti-missile operations, including lightweight sonar, active and passive sonar buoys, magnetic anomaly detection equipment and radar.
UH-3A: Utility version with T58-GE-8B turboshafts.
VH-3A (HSS-2Z) : Passenger transport version of SH-3A, used on VIP and emergency evacuation for US President and other key personnel.
VH-3D: Passenger transport version of SH-3D.
Westland Commando/Sea King: Licence-produced UK versions.
CUSTOMERS: Sikorsky built 794 S-61s between 1959 and 1980 for US and foreign armed forces, as well as for commercial, mostly offshore, operators.
DESIGN FEATURES: Five-blade main and tail rotors. All-metal fully articulated oil-lubricated main rotor. Flanged cuffs on blades bolted to matching flanges on all-steel rotor head. Main rotor blades are interchangeable and are provided with an automatic powered folding system. Rotor brake standard. All-metal tail rotor. Non-folding blades on S-61L and S-61N. Fixed stabiliser on starboard side of tail section.
FLYING CONTROLS: Rotor brake standard.
STRUCTURE: Boat hull of all-metal semi-monocoque construction. Single-step. Tail section folds to reduce stowage requirements. All-metal main and tail rotors.
LANDING GEAR: Amphibious. Landing gear consists of two twin-wheel main units, which are retracted rearward hydraulically into stabilising floats, and non-retractable tailwheel. Oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers. Goodyear mainwheels and tubeless tyres size 6.50 x 10 type III, pressure 4.92kg/cm2. Goodyear tailwheel and tyre size 6.00 x 6. Goodyear hydraulic disc brakes. Boat hull and pop-out flotation bags in stabilising floats permit emergency operation from water. Non-retractable landing gear on S-61L.
POWER PLANT: (SH-3D): Two 1,043kW General Electric T58-GE-10 shaft-turbine engines. Three bladder-type fuel tanks in hull; forward tank capacity 1,314 litres, centre tank capacity 530 litres, rear tank capacity 1,336 litres. Total fuel capacity 3,180 litres. Refuelling point on port side of fuselage. Oil capacity 26.5 litres.
(S-61L+N): Two 1,118kW General Electric CT58-140-2 turboshaft engines. Two bladder-type fuel tanks in hull; forward tank capacity 796 litres, rear tank capacity 757 litres. Total fuel capacity 1,553 litres. Additional 924 litre tank optionally available for S-61N.
ACCOMMODATION: Pilot and co-pilot on flight deck, two sonar operators in main cabin. Dual controls. Crew entry door at rear of flight deck on port side. Large loading door at rear of cabin on starboard side. Crew of three: pilot, co-pilot and flight attendant on S-61L. Main cabin accommodates up to 30 passengers. Standard arrangement has eight single seats and one double seat on port side of cabin, seven double seats on starboard side and one double seat at rear. Rear seat may be replaced by a toilet.
SYSTEMS: Primary and auxiliary hydraulic systems, pressure 105kg/cm2, for flying controls. Utility hydraulic system, pressure 210kg/cm2, for landing gear, winches and blade folding. Pneumatic system, pressure 210kg/cm2, for blow-down emergency landing gear extension. Electrical system includes one 300A DC generator, two 20kVA 115A AC generators and 24V 22A battery. APU optional.
ELECTRONICS AND EQUIPMENT: AlliedSignal AQS-13 sonar with 180? search beam width. Hamilton Standard autostabilisation equipment. Automatic transition into hover. Sonar coupler holds altitude automatically in conjunction with Ryan APN-130 Doppler radar and radar altimeter. Provision for 272kg capacity rescue hoist and 3,630kg capacity automatic touchdown-release low-response cargo sling for external loads.
ARMAMENT: Provision for 381kg of weapons, including homing torpedoes.
Jane's Helicopter Markets and Systems
Technical data for Sikorsky SH-3D
Engine: 2 x General Electric T58-10 turboshaft, rated at 1044kW, main rotor diameter: 18.9m, fuselage length: 16.69m, height: 5.13m, take-off weight: 9752kg, empty weight: 5382kg, max speed: 267km/h, range with max fuel: 1005km, armament: 2 Mk.46 torpedos

Sikorsky S-62 / HH-52
1958


The Sikorsky S-62 was the first turbine-powered helicopter to be granted a type approval certificate by the U.S. Federal Aviation Agency, and was also the first type to pass the new stringent regulations introduced by the FAA to govern the operation of commercial passenger-carrying helicopters. In meeting these requirements it was undoubtedly aided by the fact that its design, drawn up in 1957-58, was based on using identical main and tail rotors and transmission systems, and other dynamic and mechanical features, of the thoroughly proven piston-engined S-55. The fuselage was entirely new, being designed for fully amphibious operation with a flying-boat hull and main undercarriage wheels semi-retractable within the two outrigged stabilising floats. Power was provided by a single General Electric shaft turbine engine, mounted centrally above the main cabin and accommodation provided for a 2-man flight crew and 10 airline passengers or 12 troops.
Two S-62 prototypes were completed, with 1050shp T58-GE-6 engines derated to 670shp. The maiden flight on 22 May 1958, and subsequent world-wide demonstration flights, were made by N880, while N972 carried out trials for the FAA type certificate which was awarded on 30 June 1960; and a few days later the first production machine, designated S-62A, was delivered to a commercial customer. Later S-62A's have CT58-100 or -110 engines of 1250 (derated to 730) shp. In February 1962, after service trials with a modified S-62A, the U.S. Navy ordered four of these aircraft as HU2S-1G's for the U.S. Coast Guard. Subsequent naval orders for the HH-52A, as this version is now known, had raised the total to eighty-four by mid-1968 and it has been in use since early 1963. The HH-52A has the T58-GE-8 engine, military version of the CT58-110, and automatic stabilisation equipment. Additional features for coastal search and rescue work include a fold-down rescue platform and boat-towing gear. A rescue hoist can be mounted above the starboard cabin door to lift a maximum load of 272kg, or the S-62A can lift a 1361kg slung load by means of an under-fuselage hook.

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:55:09 | 显示全部楼层

Re:旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)

Two other S-62 variants have also been produced. The S-62B is essentially similar to the A model, but employs the rotor system of the Sikorsky S-58 with the main blades shortened by 0.33m. The S-62C is the equivalent of the HH-52A for commercial and foreign military customers. Apart from the U.S. Coast Guard, which remains the largest user of the type, the biggest single operator of S-62's is Petroleum Helicopters Inc, which has a fleet of six for work in support of offshore oil-drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the forty-six S-62 type helicopters ordered, up to summer 1968, other than those of the USCG, nearly half were for customers in Japan, where Mitsubishi hold the licence.
K.Munson "Helicopters And Other Rotorcraft Since 1907", 1968

The amphibious Sikorsky S-62 was derived from the piston-engined S-55 and used that helicopter's main and tail rotor system and other components mounted in a new sealed hull. The prototype S-62 flew on 22 May 1958 and was followed by the S-62A production version which, powered by a single General Electric CT58-110-1 turboshaft engine, provided accommodation for up to 11 passengers. One S-62B was built with an S-58 main rotor system. The S-62C was chosen by the US Coast Guard as a replacement for the HH-34 rescue helicopter and initial deliveries, under the designation HH-52A and named Seaguard, were made in January 1963. This version powered by a 932kW CT58-GE-8 engine was replaced by the HH-3 Pelican. The S-62 was also exported to Japan. By mid-1993, no military, and only a very small number of civilian, S-62s remain in use.
D.Donald "The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft", 1997

Technical data for Sikorsky S-62C
Crew: 2, passengers: 10, engine: 1 x General Electric CT-58-100-1 turboshaft, rated at 990kW, main rotor diameter: 16.15m, length with rotors turning: 18.86m, fuselage length: 13.58m, height: 4.33m, width: 4.8m, take-off weight: 3630kg, empty weight: 2248kg, cruising speed: 163km/h, rate of climb: 5.8m/s, service ceiling: 3570m, range: 743km






Sikorsky S-61N
1961

The commercial models of the military S-61, or SH-3, helicopter use the same rotor system with a new and longer fuselage. The S-61L is a landplane model, although its hull is sealed against the possibility of making an emergency landing on water, and all undercarriage units are non-retracting. It seats 28 passengers in the standard airline seating layout and carries a flight crew of 3. The S-61N, which carries 2 fewer passengers, is fully amphibious and can be identified by its twin stabilising floats, into which the main landwheels can be retracted. First flights of the L and N versions were made on 6 December 1960 and 7 August 1962 respectively. The type received FAA certification - the first for a twin-turbine commercial helicopter - in November 1961 and since October 1964 has been cleared for all-weather operation. Current production examples have 1500shp CT58-140 shaft turbines. The only customer so far for the S-61L has been Los Angeles Airways, which has a fleet of seven and on 1 March 1962 became the first operator to put the commercial S-61 into service. Customers up to January 1968 for the S-61N have been British European Airways (four); Greenlandair (four); Pakistan International and San Francisco & Oakland (three each); Helibuss of Norway (two); and Ansett/A.N.A., Brunei Shell Petroleum, the Canadian Dept. of Transport, Elivie of Italy, Japan Air Lines, KLM, Nitto Airways and Petroleum Helicopters Inc. (one each).
K.Munson "Helicopters And Other Rotorcraft Since 1907", 1968

The three commercial models of the S-61 ? the S-61L, S-61N and the Payloader ? used the same dynamic components as the military version, but had a longer fuselage. The S-61L (land version with non-retractable landing gear) could carry 30 passengers and a crew of three while the S-61N, which had amphibious capability, was distinguished by two sponsons into which the landing gear retracted. The former flew on 6 December 1960 and received FAA type approval in November 1961. The main operator of the S-61L was Los Angeles Airways (6), which was the first company in the world to use Sikorsky helicopters. The interior of the S-61N was quite elaborately fitted-out; the spacious cabin had a toilet, storeroom and luggage compartment, and could accommodate 26-28 passengers. Operators of the S-61N included New York Airways (4), Nippon Airways (1), British Airways Helicopters (26), Bristow Helicopters (28), Brunei Shell (2), Elivie (2), Greenlandair (5), Helikopter Service Norway (10), Japan Air Lines (1) and KLM (2).
G.Apostolo "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters", 1984

Technical data for Sikorsky S-61N
Engine: 2 x General Electric CT58-110-1 turboshaft, rated at 1000kW, main rotor diameter: 18.9m, fuselage length: 18.08m, height: 5.32m, take-off weight: 8618kg, max speed at sea level: 241km/h, ceiling: 3505m, range with max fuel: 443km



 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:56:55 | 显示全部楼层

Re:旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)

Sikorsky S-64 / CH-54 "Tarhe"
1962

Sikorsky's first crane helicopter, the S-60, was a research vehicle designed and built from funds shared between the U.S. Navy and the parent company. Work on the design started in May 1958, the idea being to produce a minimum 'backbone' airframe beneath which a close-fitting or suspended heavy payload could be supported. To speed development and minimise actual flight testing, the S-60 was given the already tried and tested power-plant, rotor and transmission systems of the S-56 helicopter. The 2100hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800 engines were similarly mounted, in outrigged pods into which the main undercarriage wheels could be partially retracted. A 5443kg payload could be attached or suspended beneath the fuselage boom, and by pivoting his seat to face aft the co-pilot could supervise loading and unloading. The S-60, registered N807, first flew on 25 March 1959 and was demonstrated extensively until it was lost during a test flight in April 1961.
By this time, however, Sikorsky had already begun to build a prototype of the bigger S-64, and this machine (N325Y) was flown on 9 May 1962. The S-64, also envisaged as an airborne prime mover, retained the same basic rotor system as the S-60, though employing a 6-blade main rotor. It differed from the smaller machine in having a pair of 4050shp JFTD-12A shaft turbines mounted side-by-side on top of the fuselage boom, and had no fin area below the boom. Ground clearance beneath this boom is 2.84m and the main wheel track is 6.02m, hence loads of considerable size can be fitted underneath the S-64. A feature of this aircraft is that the landing gear can be lengthened and shortened hydraulically, so that the helicopter can 'crouch' on to its load, raise it off the ground and then, if desired, taxi with it to a more suitable take-off point. Two additional prototypes, N305Y and N306Y, were completed for evaluation by the Federal German forces. Re-registered D-9510 and D-9511, they were operated under the aegis of the former Weser Flugzeugbau.
After evaluation of the original prototype at Fort Benning, Georgia, the U.S. Army placed a pre-series order in June 1963 for six S-64A's with the military designation CH-54A. Five of these were delivered and have operated with some distinction with the 478th Aviation Company supporting the U.S. Army's 1st Cavalry Division in Vietnam. Eighteen more CH-54A's were ordered in 1966, and total orders stood at about sixty in 1968, later aircraft having uprated -4A engines of 4620shp each. Loads which can be lifted by the S-64A/CH-54A include trucks or palletised containers holding a field hospital unit, 48 casualty litters, 67 troops or 10382kg of cargo; one CH-54A in Vietnam has successfully lifted 87 troops.
Meanwhile a Sikorsky-owned S-64A and the sixth aircraft of the U.S. Army's original order have been used to further the acceptance of the type for the civil market, where it should prove valuable for such operations as ship-to-shore loading or unloading of cargo vessels or support of offshore oil rigs. During 1967, N325Y carried out tests on behalf of the Los Angeles Airport Department with the 23-seat Budd XB-1 Skylounge pod, designed to speed connection between the city's airports and the city centre. Also under development is the S-64B/CH-54B, an enlarged three-turbine version designed to lift a 16329kg payload.
K.Munson "Helicopters And Other Rotorcraft Since 1907", 1968

Sikorsky began designing flying cranes with the development of the S-56, which, although used in the early stages of the Vietnam War to lift and carry slung loads, was really an assault and troop transport helicopter. Using the dynamic components of this aircraft, i.e. the five-blade main rotor, four-blade anti-torque rotor and two Pratt & Whitney R-2800 engines in two outrigged pods, Sikorsky built the Model S-60 in 1959, with a fuselage reduced to the bare essentials, all the payload being carried externally. Before the S-60 was destroyed in April 1961, Sikorsky had already begun the S-64 Skycrane project. The new helicopter was similar in structure to its predecessor but had a six-blade main rotor and two 4050shp Pratt & Whitney JFTD-12A turbines installed side-by-side. The height of the tricycle landing gear could be adjusted to adapt it to the payload. The S-64 had 2.84m clearance between the ground and the bottom of the fuselage, while the main landing gear wheels on two downward-sloping strut supports were set 6.02m apart. In this way, very large loads could be carried, including a special container for 23 passengers.
The German Bundeswehr was interested in the flying crane and Weser Flugzeugbau lost no time in acquiring the production license. Two S-64A prototypes built in the United States were sent to Germany for evaluation by the Army Air Corps. Meanwhile, the US Army carried out its own tests on the new Sikorsky helicopter and six were ordered in June 1963 with the designation YCH-54A. Another 18 were later added to the order, followed by further contracts for a total of 90 aircraft.
The first six flying cranes were assigned to the First Cavalry Divison (Airmobile) operating in Vietnam. The cranes' performance there was outstanding (one of them set a world record on 29 April 1965 by carrying a pod with 90 passengers). Other exploits by the Tarhe (as the US Army S-64 was called) during the Vietnam War included the lifting of bulldozers and tanks and retrieval of damaged aircraft.
The larger CH-54B version with twin 4800shp turbines and 2300kg more lifting power, went into service with the US Army in 1969; 29 were built. Sikorsky also offered the Skycrane to commercial operators. The models S-64E (civil version of the CH-54A) and S-64F (derived from the CH-54B) were produced, while plans for a triple turbine version were not realized.
G.Apostolo "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters", 1984

In 1958 Sikorsky began design work on the Model S-60 twin-engined heavy-lift helicopter, a machine that incorporated the pod-mounted piston engines and dynamic components of the earlier Model S-56/CH-37. The S-60's fuselage was extremely simple, consisting of a central 'backbone' which supported the podded engines, main and tail rotor systems, and a nose-mounted crew cabin. Bulk cargo and passengers were intended to be carried in large rectangular pods that could be attached to the underside of the aircraft's central spine, whereas vehicles and other out-sized loads were to be sling-hoisted. One S-60 was built for Navy evaluation, but the craft was found to be underpowered for its intended roles and Sikorsky took the design back to the drawing boards for extensive reworking. The reconfigured machine, which was allotted the company designation S-64A, made its first flight in May 1962 under the watchful eyes of Army observers.
The S-64A retained the S-60's unique (and somewhat insect-like) layout but was more streamlined and was powered by two 4500shp Pratt & Whitney T73-P-1 turboshafts mounted atop the central spine directly beneath the six-bladed, fully-articulated main rotor. The switch to turbine power produced significant increases in both performance and lifting ability, and in June 1963 the Army ordered six examples for operational test and evaluation. These aircraft, designated YCH-54A Tarhes and allotted the serial numbers 64-14202 through -14207, were delivered to the Fort Benning-based 478th Aviation Company beginning in June 1964. This unit subsequently took four of the machines to Vietnam for a thorough field evaluation, upon the successful conclusion of which the Army placed orders for fifty-four CH-54A production aircraft. In 1969 these machines were joined by the first of an eventual thirty-seven CH-54Bs (serials 69-18462 through -18498). The -B model Tarhe differed from the earlier -A primarily in having more powerful engines, high-lift rotor blades, a modified main rotor gearbox and rotor head, a payload capacity increased by some 5000 pounds, and dual-wheeled main landing gear. The CH-54B went on to set several international helicopter payload and time-to-altitude records that are only now being broken by the latest generation of Western and Soviet heavy-lift rotorcraft.
The first production CH-54s began reaching Vietnam in 1965, and the type quickly proved its value as a 'flying crane' by routinely sling-lifting such outsized and weighty cargoes as artillery pieces, armoured vehicles and recovered aircraft. The Tarhes' universal cargo pods also proved very useful, for they could be used to carry up to eighty-seven troops in addition to serving as mobile hospitals, command posts or barracks. On several occasions, CH-54s even served as makeshift bombers; they were among the few American aircraft in Southeast Asia that were capable of carrying, and dropping, the 10000 pound 'daisy-cutter' bombs used to create instant helicopter landing zones by flattening all vegetation (and most structures) within an area several hundred yards in diameter.

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:57:09 | 显示全部楼层

Re:旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)

During the late 1960s and early 1970s the Tarhe was gradually superseded in front-line service by the CH-47B and -C Chinook, and all surviving CH-54s were subsequently transferred to the Army Reserve and National Guard. Withdrawal from frontline units did not signal the Tarhe's immediate demise, however, for as of early 1986 seventy-one -A model machines are shared among Georgia, Kansas, Mississippi, Nevada and Pennsylvania, while the twenty-six surviving -Bs serve in Alaska, Alabama and Connecticut. These scrupulously maintained machines remain among the most capable aircraft available to the Army, and current plans call for the CH-54 to remain active in the Reserve and Guard until well into the 1990s.
S.Harding "U.S.Army Aircraft since 1947", 1990
Sikorsky's first 'flying crane' helicopter was the Sikorsky S-60, developed from the S-56 and retaining that machine's powerplant, transmission and rotor system. Work began in May 1958 and the prototype was flown on 2 March 1969; it was capable of lifting a 5443kg payload beneath the fuselage boom, and the co-pilot could turn his seat to face aft to control loading and unloading. The prototype S-60 crashed in April 1961, but by then Sikorsky had begun construction of an enlarged version, with a six-bladed main rotor driven by two 3020kW JFTD-12A turboshaft engines. Designated S-64, the prototype flew on 9 May 1962 and was followed by two further machines for evaluation by the Federal German armed forces. This did not result in German orders, but the US Army placed an order for six S-64A helicopters in June 1963, under the designation CH-54A Tarhe. This version was powered by 3356kW Pratt & Whitney T73-P-1 engines, and production eventually totalled approximately 60; 10 CH-54B helicopters were built with 3579kW T73P-700 engines. The Tarhe served in a heavy-lift role in Vietnam, with the 478th and the 291st Aviation Companies.
Only 97 Tarhes were built for the United States Army between 1964 and 1972. In the later years of its life, the type was largely relegated to Army National Guard units, seven of which were still equipped with it by the beginning of the 1990s. Progressively replaced by the (less-capable) CH-47D, the last unit to give up its CH-54s was D Company, 113th Aviation, of the Nevada Army National Guard, based in Reno, in 1993. On 1 February 1992 Sikorsky sold the rights for the S-64 to Erickson Air-Crane Co. of Central Point, Oregon, who have so far undertaken no production.
D.Donald "The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft", 1997
The S-64 flying crane was designed initially for military transport duties. Equipped with interchangeable pods, it is suitable for use as a troop transport, and for minesweeping, cargo and missile transport, anti-submarine or field hospital operations. Equipment includes a removable 9,072kg hoist, a sling attachment and a load stabiliser to prevent undue sway in cargo winch operations. Attachment points are provided on the fuselage and landing gear to facilitate securing of bulky loads.
VERSIONS
S-64A: Under this designation the first of three prototypes flew for the first time 9 May 1962 and was used by the US Army at Fort Benning, Georgia, for testing and demonstration. The second and third prototypes were evaluated by the German armed forces.
CH-54A: Six ordered by US Army in 1963 to investigate the heavylift concept, with emphasis on increasing mobility in the battlefield. Delivery of five CH-54As (originally YCH-54As) to the US Army took place in late 1964 and early 1965. A sixth CH-54A remained at Stratford, with a company-owned S-64, for a programme leading toward a restricted FAA certification, which was awarded 30 July 1965. Further US Army orders followed.
On 18 April 1969, two commercial Skycranes were delivered to Rowan Drilling Company Inc of Houston, Texas, for operation in support of oil exploration and drilling operations in Alaska.
CH-54B: On 4 November 1968 Sikorsky announced that it had received a US Army contract to increase the payload capacity of the CH-54 from 10 to 12.5 tons. The contract called for a number of design improvements to the engine, gearbox, rotor head and structure; altitude performance and hot weather operating capability were also to be improved. Two of the improved flying cranes, designated CH-54B, were accepted by the US Army during 1969.
The original JFTD12-4A engines were replaced by two Pratt & Whitney JFTD12-5As, each rated at 3,579kW, and a gearbox capable of receiving 5,891kW from the two engines was introduced. Single-engine performance was increased, since the new gearbox receives 3,579kW from one engine, compared with 3,020kW on the CH-54A.
A new rotor system was also introduced, utilising a high-lift rotor blade with a chord some 0.064m greater than that of the blades used formerly.
Other changes included the provision of twin wheels on the main landing gear, an improved automatic flight control system and some general structural strengthening throughout the aircraft. Gross weight was increased from 19,050kg to 21,318kg.
S-64E: FAA certification of the improved S-64E for civil use was announced in 1969, for the transportation of external cargo weighing up to 9,072kg.
In January 1972 Erickson Air-Crane Company of Marysville, California, purchased the first S-64E, for logging and other heavylift tasks. The company acquired the S-64 type certificate from Sikorsky in 1992 and is marketing improved versions worldwide.
S-64F: Designation of a commercial version of the S-64.
CUSTOMERS: Versions of the CH-54 are in service with the armed forces of the USA and civil operators.
DESIGN FEATURES: Six-blade, fully articulated main rotor. Four-blade tail rotor. Steel driveshafts. Main gearbox below main rotor, intermediate gearbox at base of tail pylon. Tail gearbox at top of pylon. Main gearbox rated at 4,922kW on CH-54A.
FLYING CONTROLS: Rotor brake standard.
STRUCTURE: Aluminium main blades with aluminium and steel head. Aluminium tail rotor blades with titanium head. Pod and beam type of aluminium and steel semi-monocoque construction.
LANDING GEAR: Non-retractable tricycle type, with single wheel on each unit of CH-54A/S-64E, twin wheels on main units of S-64F. CH-54A/S-64E mainwheel tyres size 38.45 x 12.50-16, pressure 6.55 bars. S-64F mainwheel tyres size 25.65 x 8.50-10, pressure 6.90 bars. Nosewheels and tyres of all versions size 25.65 x 8.50-10, pressure 6.90 bars.
POWER PLANT: (CH-54A/S-64E): Two Pratt & Whitney JFTD12-4A (military T73-P-1) turboshaft engines, each rated at 3,356kW for take-off and with maximum continuous rating of 2,983kW. Two fuel tanks in fuselage, forward and aft of transmission, each with capacity of 1,664 litres. Total standard fuel capacity 3,328 litres. Provision for auxiliary fuel tank of 1,664 litres capacity, raising total fuel capacity to 4,992 litres.
POWER PLANT: (CH-54B/S-64F): Two Pratt & Whitney JFTD12-5A turboshaft engines, each rated at 3,579kW for take-off and with maximum continuous rating of 3,303.5kW. Fuel tanks as for CH-54A/S-64E.
ACCOMMODATION: Pilot and co-pilot side by side at front of cabin. Aft-facing seat for third pilot at rear of cabin, with flying controls. The occupant of this third seat is able to take over control of the aircraft during loading and unloading. Two additional jump seats available in cabin. Payload in interchangeable pods.
Jane's Helicopter Markets and Systems
Technical data for Sikorsky CH-54B
Engine: 2 x Pratt & Whitney T73-700 turboshaft, rated at 3579kW, main rotor diameter: 21.95m, fuselage length: 21.41m, height: 5.67m, take-off weight: 21318kg, empty weight: 8981kg, cruising speed: 169km/h, range with max fuel: 370km, payload: 9000kg in a standard container


Sikorsky S-61R / CH-3 / HH-3 "Jolly Green Giant"
1963

The S-61R differs significantly in a number of ways from the original S-61, in that it has a more capacious boat-type hull, modified to take a rear loading ramp, while the two sponsons have been replaced by two stub wings set farther back, into which the rear members of the tricycle landing gear retract.

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Re:旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)

The prototype was built by the company as a private venture and flown with a civil registration on 17 June 1963. However, the USAF had already placed an order with Sikorsky in February of that year for 22 aircraft, designated CH-3C, and they began to receive the first helicopters at the end of 1963. Subsequent orders brought the total number for the USAF to 133.
The CH-3C was used in the Vietnam War for rescuing pilots who had been shot down and came to be nicknamed the "Jolly Green Giant"; it was given more powerful turbines from February 1965 and redesignated CH-3E. The uprated "Green Giant" could carry 26 troops or 15 wounded, or vehicles of equivalent weight, and could also be armed with two Emerson turrets on the leading edges of the two stub wings. Forty-two CH-3Es were built, in addition to which 41 CH-3Cs were modified to this standard. The USAF also asked for specific modifications to be made to this helicopter to meet the demands of the Vietnam War: application of armour; use of supplementary fuel tanks for extended flights; self-sealing internal fuel tanks and a telescopic in-flight refuelling probe. Two of the first aircraft of the 50 to be built in the HH-3E rescue version became famous in 1967 by flying non-stop from New York to Paris (for the Air Show), covering the 6870km journey with nine refuellings by airtankers.
In August 1965, the US Coast Guard ordered a special version of the HH-3 which was given the designation HH-3F Pelican. This paramilitary American rescue service needed an aircraft with all-weather capability, which could safely land on water, and the HH-3F was the ideal solution. The Pelican was virtually identical to the HH-3E, apart from the lack of protection, armament and other military equipment. It had an AN/APN-195 search radar on the port side of the nose. The US Coast Guard received 40 HH-3Fs. The only foreign license-holder for this variant was Agusta, who began producing it in 1974. The 22 aircraft built by Agusta were all delivered to the Italian Air Force as replacements for the old, amphibious Grumman Albatross used for search and rescue missions at sea.
G.Apostolo "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters", 1984

Technical data for Sikorsky CH-3C
Engine: 2 x General Electric T58-GE-1 turboshaft, rated at 969kW, main rotor diameter: 18.90m, fuselage length: 17.45m, height: 5.51m, take-off weight: 9750kg, max speed: 261km/h, cruising speed: 232km/h, hovering ceiling, OGE: 2600m, range with max fuel: 748km, payload: 3630kg







Sikorsky S-65 / CH-53 Sea Stallion
1964

Currently the largest and heaviest helicopter in the western world, the S-65A is something of a hybrid, its fuselage being, in essence, a scaled-up version of that used on the S-61R, while its rotor and transmission system and certain other dynamic components are inherited from the S-64 Skycrane. It does not have the boat-type hull of the S-61R, but the flat-bottomed body is watertight and has similar sponsons amidships in which are housed fuel tanks and the main undercarriage members when retracted. The nosewheel is also fully retractable. Basic empty weight is reduced by the use of titanium in the rotor head. The S-65A carries a crew of 3 and can airlift 38 troops and their equipment, 24 casualty litters and 4 medical attendants, or some 3630kg of cargo within the fuselage. A let-down rear ramp provides access for such military loads as 2 jeeps, a Hawk missiles, or a 105mm howitzer and its carriage. A slung load of some 5900kg can be lifted on an under-fuselage hook.
In August 1962 it was announced that the S-65A had been selected as a new ship-borne heavy assault transport for the U.S. Marine Corps, with the military title CH-53A Sea Stallion. A prototype flew on 14 October 1964, and delivery of the first of one hundred and six production CH-53A's began in September 1966. Since January 1967 the Sea Stallion has been serving with Marine Squadron HMH-463 in Vietnam, and by that summer some thirty Sea Stallions had been delivered. Standard powerplant is the T64-GE-6 shaft turbine, though the 3080shp T64-GE-1 or 3435shp T64-GE-16 may be fitted. One CH-53A with standard engines has been flown at a gross weight of 20865kg, of which 9072kg was payload.
A second military variant is the HH-53B, flown for the first time on 15 March 1967. This version has 3080shp T64-GE-3 engines and certain features, such as a rescue hoist, jettisonable auxiliary fuel tanks and a telescopic in-flight refuelling probe, not found on the CH-53A. It also has defensive machine gun positions fore and aft. The HH-53B is employed by the Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service of the U.S. Air Force, and delivery of an initial batch of eight, ordered in September 1966, began in June 1967. Two of these aircraft are stationed at Cape Kennedy in connection with the Apollo manned spacecraft programme.
Parallel with the military variants, Sikorsky have had under development a commercial model of the S-65A. This is currently envisaged with 3435shp T64 engines and an enlarged pressurised fuselage to seat 67 passengers.
K.Munson "Helicopters And Other Rotorcraft Since 1907", 1968

Using much of the experience gained with the S-61 and the dynamic components (rotor, transmission and anti-torque rotor) of the S-64 flying crane, Sikorsky designed a new family of helicopters designated S-65, various versions of which have been developed. On the basis of the S-61R project for the Marines, the American company proposed the S-65A with a completely redesigned, large-capacity fuselage, capable of transporting 37 equipped troops or 24 stretchers with 4 medical attendants. The US Navy, which is responsible for acquisitions for the Marines, announced the choice of the S-65A in August 1962.
The CH-53 Sea Stallion had the six-blade rotor and tail rotor of the S-64 flying crane, driven through the same transmission by new General Electric T64 engines. The fuselage no longer had the boat-type hull of the S-61, although it could land on water with two stub wings acting as stabilizers and containing the fuel tanks and, at the back, the bay for the fully retractable main landing gear units. The cargo hold, equipped with a loading ramp and an automatic loading and unloading system (which can be operated even when the helicopter is in flight), can take two jeeps, antiaircraft missiles with their fire control systems or a 105mm howitzer.
The first Sea Stallion flew on 14 October 1965, and delivery of the first 106 helicopters began in September 1966. The aircraft were assigned to Marine Squadron HMH-463 in Vietnam in January 1967. At that period, it was the largest helicopter in the Western world. On 17 February 1968, a CH-53A with modified T64 engines took off with a gross weight of 23540kg and a 9925kg payload, establishing an unofficial record. On 23 October of the following year a Sea Stallion demonstrated surprising manoeuvrability when it performed a series of loops and rolls with Lt.-Col. Robert Guay of the Marines and Sikorsky test pilot Byron Graham at the controls, carrying a gross weight of 12250kg. During these manoeuvres, the helicopter supported from -0.2 to 2.8g.
The Sea Stallion also aroused some interest in other countries where there was a requirement for a helicopter for troop transport. Thus the S-65A was also ordered by Germany, where it was built under license by VFW-Fokker as the CH-53G. Another eight aircraft, modified for use in hot/high conditions, were exported to Israel.
In September 1966, the USAF also ordered this big helicopter for its rescue service to assist space programmes and recover pilots from war zones. The eight HH-53B ordered for the USAF were known as "Super Jolly Green Giants" and fitted with in-flight refuelling probes, jettisonable auxiliary fuel tanks, rescue hoists and all-weather avionics. Fifty-eight of the subsequent HH-53C variant with uprated turbines (3435shp each) were built. After having used the early production aircraft, the US Marine Corps also asked for more powerful engines to be installed, and the result was the CH-53D with 3925shp T64-GE-423 engines. In this version, the tail and rotor could be folded back automatically, and a high density cabin layout was available to accommodate 64 troops, equivalent to the S-65C export version. A total of 265 CH-53As and Ds were built for the Marines; the last left the factory on 31 January 1972.
To complete its experiments with the RH-3A, the US Navy borrowed nine CH-53Ds from the Marines, fitted with devices for the detection, sweeping and neutralization of all types of mines. This variant was designated RH-53D, and 30 were produced for the US Navy and six for the Iranian Navy. The RH-53 has 1900 liter supplementary fuel tanks, a 270kg hoist and 11340kg cargo hook. At the beginning of 1973, these helicopters were used by US Navy Task Force 78 for Operation Endsweep, to free the North Vietnamese ports of mines.
The latest version of the S-65 to be built is the CH-53E Super Stallion for the US Navy. This is a much modified version with three 4380shp General Electric T64-GE-416 engines and strengthened transmission to withstand the increase in power. The fuselage is about 2m longer than that of the CH-53D and the tail pylon is canted to port. The main rotor has also been improved and has seven composite blades (its predecessor had six light alloy ones). Thirty-three CH-53Es were initially ordered by the Marines and 16 by the US Navy. The type is still in production.

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 21:58:36 | 显示全部楼层

Re:旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)

G.Apostolo "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters", 1984

For US Marine Corps use Sikorsky developed the Sikorsky S-65 heavy assault transport helicopter as the CH-53 Sea Stallion, first flown on 14 October 1964. It incorporated some components used in the S-64 Skycrane but had a watertight hull and was powered by two 2125kW General Electric T64-GE6 engines. It had rear-loading doors, and among the specified loads were a 105mm howitzer or 38 combat-equipped troops. The initial production version was the CH-53A, delivered from September 1966, but the CH-53D introduced in March 1969 had 2927kW T64-GE-413 engines. A specialised minesweeping version, the RH-53D, was first flown on 27 October 1972. HH-53B and HH-53C SAR variants were built for the US Air Force, the former equipped to a standard similar to that of the HH-3E and powered by 2297kW T64-GE-3 engines; it was first flown on 15 March 1967. More powerful 3,925kW T64-GE-7 engines powered the improved HH-53C, the same powerplant being installed in the CH-53G produced for the German army. Two S-65Oe rescue helicopters were delivered to the Austrian air force in 1970.
Work began in 1971 on an enlarged version with a lengthened fuselage, a new rotor system and three 3266kW T64-GE-416 engines. The US Navy contract covering two prototypes and subsequent flight test was awarded in 1973, and the YCH-53E flew for the first time on 1 March 1974; the first CH-53E Super Stallion delivery to the US Marine Corps took place on 16 June 1981. Since 1982 Sikorsky has been developing the MH-53E mine countermeasures variant. It incorporates major equipment changes and has much enlarged sponsons to carry an additional 3785 litres of fuel.
VARIANTS
YCH-53A: winner of the HH(X) competition, two prototype CH-53As were completed for US Navy evaluation, by March 1966; first flight made by second aircraft (BuNo. 151614) on 14 October 1964, powered by two T64-GE-6 turboshafts
CH-53A: initial production version for US Marine Corps, deliveries commencing in September 1965; accelerated deployment to South East Asia made after improvements to engine intake filters, defensive armament, crew armour and external lifting capability; selected T64-GE-1 engines retrofitted for extended running at maximum power output when necessary; fitted with hardpoints for towing mine-sweeping gear from 34th aircraft onwards; used by USAF for crew training and later for covert operations in Vietnam and Laos (seven aircraft borrowed from and returned to Navy); 139 built
RH-53A: 15 dedicated mine-counter-measures versions delivered to the Navy via the Marine Corps; re-engined with T64-GE-413 turboshafts; rectangular frame mounted on rear ramp to tow mine clearing sled and rear view mirrors fitted on either side of the nose; used to clear North Vietnamese mines during Operation Endsweep in 1973; RH-53As replaced by RH-53Ds in Navy service and aircraft returned to Marines
TH-53A: former USMC CH~53As used by USAF from 1989 onwards to train MH-53 crews at Kirtland AFB, NM; at least three aircraft in use, stripped of most equipment and camouflaged
HH-53B: eight aircraft similar to CH-53A but delivered to USAF Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service to supplement HH-3s in South East Asia; refuelling probe relocated to starboard side of nose, pylons fitted to allow carriage of external fuel tanks; armed with three pintle-mounted GAU-2A/B 7.62mm Miniguns and powered by T64-GE-3s, later replaced by T64-GE-7s; quickly supplemented by HH-53Cs and re-assigned to CONUS, the last four HH-53Bs were modified to MH-53J standard in the late 1980s
CH-53C: 22 aircraft built for heavy-lift duties with the USAF; fitted with sponsons and external tanks as developed for HH-53C, it was similar in most respects to this version but lacked a refuelling probe; replaced CH-53As on loan from USMC for covert operations in Laos; later operated by TAC and USAFE; seven surviving CH-53Cs brought up to MH-53J standard in late 1980s
HH-53C: refined version of HH-53B, 44 of which were built for USAF ARRS for combat rescue; dubbed 'Super Jolly Green Giant'; dispensed with bracing struts fore the external pylons, and included additional crew armour, and better radio fit to facilitate operations with HC-130 tankers; RHAW and IR jamming systems introduced as a result of experience in North Vietnam during 1972; HH-53Cs used in support of Apollo space missions for emergency capsule rescue; HH-53Cs remained in USAF service until late 1980s when all were converted to MH-53J standard
S-65C-2 (S-65O): export version of CH-53C, two of which were delivered to the Austrian air force in 1970; later retired from use due to operating costs and passed on to Israel in 1981
S-65-C3: only other export version of H-53, delivered to Israel from 1969; corresponding to HH-53C, 33 aircraft supplemented by two additional S-65s from Austria in 1981; surviving aircraft now being upgraded by IAI subsidiary MATA Helicopters
CH-53D: improved version of CH-53A fitted with new transmission increasing hot-and-high performance, first flown on 27 January 1969; 124 built
RH-53D: first flown 27 October 1972; 30 aircraft (named Sea Stallion) specifically developed for anti-mine warfare in the light of positive experience with RH-53A; fitted with an initial powerplant of two T64-GE-415s, RH-53D also differs from RH-53A by inclusion of refuelling probe, automatic flight control system, more powerful cargo hook, and rescue winch; armed with two'swivel-mounted 12.7mm machine-guns; six delivered to Imperial Iranian navy before the fall of the Shah
VH-53D: two CH-53Ds delivered to USMC for VIP transport
CH-53G: aircraft built under licence by VFW for a German army order for 135 examples, later reduced to 110; 20 assembled by VFW-Fokker entirely from US-supplied components, then progressively increasing indigenous sources; total includes two US-built CH-53Gs; first German-assembled aircraft delivered on 11 October 1971, entered service in-1973
YHH-53H: first aircraft to be fitted with '

ave Low I?, in trials for a projected night/ all-weather combat rescue/infiltration mission; fitted with early low-light TV system which proved inadequate, though the first successful night rescue was made with an improved system in December 1972, in Laos; aircraft later modified to '

ave Low II' standard, with external sponsons and tanks
HH-53H: eight HH-53Cs and YHH-53H modified to definitive '

ave Low III' standard; delivered between 1979 and 1980 and fitted with FLIR, TF radar, INS, computer generated moving map display, RHAW and chaff/flare dispensers; later re-designated MH-53H
MH-53H: redesignation and modification of HH-53H under the Constant Green programme; all '

ave Low III' aircraft now being modified to MH-53J standard
MH-53J: modification of 31 HH-53Bs, CH-53Cs and HH-53Cs and modernisation of MH-53Hs to produce '

ave Low III Enhanced'; fitted with digital databus, improved transmission, T64-GE-415 engines and 453kg of titanium armour; MTOW increased from 19050 to 22680kg; those modified from HH-53Bs retain braced external tank pylons of first Super Jollys
D.Donald "The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft", 1997

On 27 August 1962, it was announced that Sikorsky had been selected by the US Navy to produce a heavy assault transport helicopter for use by the Marine Corps. First flight was made 14 October 1964, and deliveries began in mid-1966.
VERSIONS
CH-53A: Initial version utilising many components based on those of the S-64A Skycrane, but powered by two General Electric T64 turboshaft engines and has a watertight hull. A full-size rear opening, with built-in ramp, permits easy loading and unloading, with the aid of a special hydraulically operated internal cargo loading system and floor rollers.
Typical cargo loads include two Jeeps, or two Hawk missiles with cable reels and control console, or a 105 mm howitzer and carriage. An external cargo system permits in-flight pick-up and release without ground assistance.
The CH-53A is able to operate under all-weather and climatic conditions. Its main rotor blades and tail pylon fold hydraulically for stowage on board ship.
CH-53D: Improved CH-53A for US Marine Corps, the first of which was delivered on 3 March 1969. Two T64-GE-413 engines, each with a maximum rating of 2,927kW. A total of 55 troops can be carried in a high-density arrangement. An integral cargo handling system makes it possible for one man to load or unload 1 ton of palletised cargo a minute. Main rotor and tail pylon fold automatically for carrier stowage.

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Re:旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)

Last CH-53D (the 26th built) was delivered on 31 January 1972. All but the first 34 CH-53s were provided with hardpoints for supporting towing equipment and transferring tow loads to the airframe, so that the US Marine Corps could utilise the aircraft as airborne minesweepers, giving an assault commander the capability of clearing enemy mines from harbours and off beaches without having to wait for surface minesweepers. Tow kits installed in the 15 CH-53Ds operated by the US Navy Squadron HM-12 included automatic flight control system interconnections to provide automatic cable yaw angle retention and aircraft attitude and heading hold; rearview mirrors for pilot and co-pilot; tow cable tension and yaw angle indicator; automatic emergency cable release; towboom and hook system with 6,803kg load capacity when cable was locked to internal towboom; dam to prevent cabin flooding in emergency water landing with lower ramp open; dual hydraulically powered cable winches; racks and cradles for stowage of minesweeping equipment; auxiliary fuel tanks in cabin to increase endurance.
CH-53G: Version of the CH-53 for the German armed forces, with T64-GE-7 engines. A total of 112 were produced, the first of two built by Sikorsky being delivered 31 March 1969. The next 20 were assembled in Germany from US-built components. The remainder embody some 50% components of German manufacture. Prime contractor in Germany was VFW-Fokker, whose first CH-53G flew 11 October 1971. Deliveries completed in 1975.
HH-53B: Eight ordered by USAF in September 1966 for Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service. The first of these flew 15 March 1967, powered by 2,297kW T64-GE-3 turboshaft engines. Withdrawn from service.
HH-53C: Improved version of the HH-53B, with 2,927kW T64-GE-7 engines, auxiliary jettisonable fuel tanks each of 1,703 litres capacity on new cantilever mounts, flight refuelling probe, and rescue hoist with 76m of cable. External cargo hook of 9,070kg capacity. First HH-53C was delivered to the USAF 30 August 1968. A total of 72 HH-53B/Cs was built. Withdrawn from service.
HH-53H Pave Low III: Special operations version for combat rescue and recovery. Eight converted to MH-53J Pave Low III.
MH-53J Pave Low III Enhanced: US Air Force upgrade of Special Operations Forces combat rescue and recovery fleet; 31 HH-53Bs, HH-53Cs and CH-53Cs converted at NAS Pensacola, Florida, beginning 1986, to MH-53J Pave Low III Enhanced; similar to 11 HH-53H Pave Low III produced earlier, eight survivors of which also converted to MH-53Js; programme completed in 1990. Modifications include Texas Instruments AN/AAQ-10 nose-mounted FLIR, inertial navigation, Doppler radar, computer-projected map display, Navstar GPS, Texas Instruments AN/APQ-158 terrain-following/avoidance radar in offset nose radome, chaff/flare dispensers, Loral AN/ALQ-157 IR jammer on each outrigger pylon, 454kg of extra titanium armour plating and Collins AN/AIC-3 intercom; armament includes three 7.62mm or 12.7mm machine guns firing through windows on each side and from open rear ramp. Power plant is two 3,266kW General Electric T64-GE-415 turboshafts; maximum T-O weight increased to 22,680kg. Further upgrades planned to improve combat effectiveness and service life.
MH-53M Pave Low IV: Internal upgrade featuring new avionics and defence aids, including an integrated AP-102A weapon systems computer to speed up target acquisition. All 39 existing MH-53J Pave Low III's are expected to be converted.


RH-53D: Specially equipped mine sweeping version for the US Navy and Iran.
TH-53A: Training version in service with the USAF.
YCH-53E: Three-engined development of the CH-53D.
VH-53D: Presidential helicopter of US Marine Corps.
S-65-Oe: Two ordered in 1969 by Austrian Air Force and delivered in 1970. Used for rescue duties in the Alps, they have the same rescue hoist as the HH-53B/C, fittings for auxiliary fuel tanks and accommodation for 38 passengers. Withdrawn from service.
S-65C: Commercial intercity helicopter proposal based on military CH-53.
Yasur 2000: Upgrade of 30 Israeli Air Force CH-53Ds by IAI. Improved avionics and structural changes to extend service life. Other modifications include internal auxiliary fuel tanks, flight refuelling boom, rescue hoist, crashworthy seats and cockpit armour.
DESIGN FEATURES: Rotor system and transmission generally similar to those of S-64A Skycrane, but main rotor head is of titanium and steel, and has folding blades.
STRUCTURE: Fuselage is a conventional semi-monocoque structure of aluminium, steel and titanium. Folding tail pylon. Large horizontal stabiliser on starboard side of tail rotor pylon.
LANDING GEAR: Retractable tricycle type, with twin wheels on each unit. Main units retract into rear of sponsons on each side of fuselage. Fully castoring nose unit. Mainwheels and nosewheels have tyres size 25.65 x 8.50-10, pressure 6.55 bars.
POWER PLANT: Normally two 2,125kW General Electric T64-GE-6 turboshaft engines, mounted in pod on each side of main rotor pylon. The CH-53A can also utilise, without airframe modification, the T64-GE-1 engine of 2,297kW or the later T64-GE-16 (mod) engine of 2,561.5kW. Two self-sealing bladder fuel tanks, each with capacity of 1,192 litres, housed in forward part of sponsons. Total fuel capacity 2,384 litres.
ACCOMMODATION: Crew of three. Main cabin accommodates 37 combat-equipped troops on inward-facing seats. Provision for carrying 24 stretchers and four attendants. Roller-skid track combination in floor for handling heavy freight. Door on starboard side of cabin at front. Rear-loading ramp.
Jane's Helicopter Markets and Systems
Technical data for Sikorsky CH-53D
Engine: 2 x General Electric T64-GE-412 turboshaft, rated at 2926kW, main rotor diameter: 22.02m, fuselage length: 20.5m, height: 7.6m, take-off weight: 19050kg, empty weight: 10650kg, max speed: 315km/h, cruising speed: 278km/h, range with payload: 2075km, rate of climb: 11m/s, service ceiling: 6220km, internal (external) payload: 3710kg (9070kg)







Sikorsky S-61F / NH-3
1965

Since 21 May 1965 Sikorsky has been testing the S-61F compound helicopter, an SH-3A with a new, streamlined fuselage, fully retractable undercarriage, swivelling tail rotor and 9.75m span wings supporting two 1350kg Pratt & Whitney J60 podded jet engines. This aircraft has already reached a level speed of 390km/h.
K.Munson "Helicopters And Other Rotorcraft Since 1907", 1968




Sikorsky S-66
project

Sikorsky, who may rightly be considered one of the giants of the helicopter industry, has taken part in all the design competitions for combat helicopters held by the American armed forces. In 1964, it submitted the S-66 project to the US Army for the AAFSS specification, calling for an aircraft with a maximum speed of approximately 418km/h and ten minutes' hovering capability.
The S-66 looked very much like the Lockheed AH-56A Cheyenne (which won the contest), but had a Rotorprop tail rotor which could rotate its axis through 90? to act both as a conventional anti-torque rotor in horizontal flight and as a pusher propeller, thereby transforming the S-66 into a compound aircraft in cruising flight.
G.Apostolo "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters", 1984

Technical data for Sikorsky S-66
Crew: 2, engine: 1 x Lycoming T55 turboshaft, rated at 2530kW, max speed: 450km/h, cruising speed: 370km/h

 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 22:00:04 | 显示全部楼层

Re:旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)


Sikorsky S-67
1970

Sikorsky, who may rightly be considered one of the giants of the helicopter industry, has taken part in all the design competitions for combat helicopters held by the American armed forces. In 1964, it submitted the S-66 project to the US Army for the AAFSS specification, calling for an aircraft with a maximum speed of approximately 418km/h and ten minutes' hovering capability.
The S-66 looked very much like the Lockheed AH-56A Cheyenne (which won the contest), but had a Rotorprop tail rotor which could rotate its axis through 90? to act both as a conventional anti-torque rotor in horizontal flight and as a pusher propeller, thereby transforming the S-66 into a compound aircraft in cruising flight. When the AH-56A failed to live up to expectations, Sikorsky first offered an intermediate aircraft, consisting of an armed version of the S-61, then designed a simplified AAFSS using the maximum number of components from the S-61. The result was the S-67 Blackhawk which appeared in 1970.
The Blackhawk looked like a helicopter with conventional rotors (those of the S-61) and had the now typical lines and features of a combat helicopter: two stub wings with a 8.33m span and an all-moving tail plane. The main-wheels were retractable, while the tailwheel was not. One of the most interesting features of this aircraft was the presence of speed brakes on the wing trailing edges, which could be used both as airbrakes and to improve manoeuvrability. In addition the main rotor blade tips were modified and given a sweep-back of 20?, to reduce vibration, stall speed and noise.
The Blackhawk was put through a long series of tests from 1970 to 1974 but judged unsatisfactory. It nonetheless established an E-1 class world speed record on 14 December 1970 by flying at 348.971km/h over 3km, beating this on 19 December with a new record of 335.485km/h over a 15/25km circuit. In the final stages of testing, the S-67 was fitted with night vision systems, a TAT-140 turret with a 30mm cannon and an insulated and soundproof compartment for troop transport. The S-67 was also designed to carry an armament of 16 TOW antitank missiles, 2.75 in rockets or Sidewinder air-to-air missiles.
The Blackhawk demonstrated excellent manoeuvrability, weapon carrying capacity and versatility. At the end of the test cycle, the US Army asked for the aircraft to be modified by substituting a ducted fan for the tail unit, and in this configuration it reached a speed of 370km/h in a test dive in 1974.
G.Apostolo "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters", 1984

Sikorsky designed and developed the Sikorsky S-67 Blackhawk highspeed attack helicopter as a private venture. This combined two 1119kW General Electric T58-GE-5 engines and five-bladed main and tail rotors with a slender gunship fuselage, short-span 8.33m fixed wings, a cruciform tail unit with an all-moving horizontal surface, and retractable tailwheel landing gear. Highly manoeuvrable, the S-67 established on 14 December 1970 a new world-class speed record over a 3km course of 348.971km/h. Its development was abandoned after an accident in 1974.
D.Donald "The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft", 1997

Technical data for Sikorsky S-67
Crew: 2, engine: 2 x General Electric T58-GE-5 turboshaft, rated at 1119kW, main rotor diameter: 18.9m, length: 19.7m, height: 5.0m, wingspan: 8.33m, take-off weight: 9980kg, empty weight: 4955kg, max speed: 349km/h, cruising speed: 320km/h, rate of climb: 12.1m/s, range: 400km



 楼主| 发表于 2007-4-14 22:00:26 | 显示全部楼层

Re:旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)


Sikorsky S-58T
1971

S-58 fitted with P&WC PT6T-3 twinpack turboshaft. Prot FF 26 Aug. 1970. Kits built by Sikorsky but 160 conversions carried out by California Helicopter International.
R.Simpson "Airlife's Helicopter and Rotorcraft", 1998



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Re:旋翼机大观-----北美洲的旋翼机(5)


Sikorsky S-69 / XH-59
1972

In February 1972, Sikorsky announced the development of an experimental helicopter designated S-69, which was designed to study the Advancing Blade Concept (ABC). This new system consisted of two rigid, contra-rotating rotors which made use of the aerodynamic lift of the advancing blades. At high speeds, the retreating blades were offloaded, as most of the load was supported by the advancing blades of both rotors and the penalty due to stall of the retreating blade was thus eliminated. This system did not even require a wing to be fitted for high speeds and to improve manoeuvrability, and also eliminated the need for an anti-torque rotor at the tail.
The aim of the project was to evaluate the ABC with this helicopter, first using scale models for wind tunnel tests at the Ames NASA research center, and then the real aircraft, which flew on 26 July 1973. Unfortunately, however, this prototype was lost in an accident a month later. Following an enquiry, design modifications were requested, plus improvements to the control system. Tests were resumed in July 1975 with a second aircraft. When test flights as a pure helicopter were completed, a new experimental phase began with the addition of an auxiliary turbojet. In 1983 Sikorsky proposed further modifying the aircraft as the XH-59B, with a shortened fuselage and ducted fan providing forward thrust.
G.Apostolo "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters", 1984

In late 1971 the Army Air Mobility Research and Development Laboratory awarded Sikorsky a contract for the development of a single-engined research helicopter prototype designed specifically to flight test the company's Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) rotor system. The resultant Model S-69, which was allotted the military designation XH-59A and the serial number 71-1472, made its first flight in July 1973.
The XH-59A's ABC system consisted of two three-bladed, coaxial, contra-rotating rigid rotors, both of which were driven by the craft's single 1825shp PT6T-3 Turbo Twin Pac engine. During high-speed flight only the advancing blades of each rotor generated lift; this off-loaded the retreating blades and thereby eliminated the aerodynamic restrictions caused by blade-stall and the high mach number effect of the advancing blade tip. This, in turn, produced greater stability and manoeuvrability while eliminating the need for either a supplementary lift-generating wing or an anti-torque tail rotor. The XH-59A's streamlined fuselage more closely resembled that of a conventional airplane than a helicopter, having a cantilever tail unit with twin endplate rudders, side-by-side seating for the two crewmen, and fully retractable tricycle landing gear.
The crash of the first XH-59A early in the flight test programme led to the construction of a second prototype incorporating several significant control system modifications. This second machine (73-21941) flew for the first time in 1975, and in 1977 was converted into a compound rotorcraft through the installation of two 1350kg J60-P-3A turbojet engines. The modified machine was jointly evaluated by the Army, Navy, and NASA beginning in 1978, and was later able to reach and maintain speeds in excess of 515kph in level flight. The first prototype was ultimately rebuilt as a compound rotorcraft under a NASA contract and subsequently test flown (with the new serial 73-29142) by mixed Army, Navy, and NASA crews at NASA's Moffet Field, California, test facility. Both XH-59A aircraft were officially transferred to NASA following the 1981 end of joint Army/Navy participation in the tri-partite flight test programme.
S.Harding "U.S.Army Aircraft since 1947", 1990
In 1972 Sikorsky designed the S-69 for the US Army, gaining a contract for two XH-59A prototypes to evaluate an Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) rotor system comprising two counter-rotating three-bladed rigid main rotors, with a 1361kW Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6T-3 Turbo Twin Pac to power them; the S-69 requires no tail rotor and has a conventional horizontal tail surface with endplate fins and rudders. Additional power is provided by two pod-mounted 1361kg thrust Pratt & Whitney J60-P-3A turbojets, one on each side of the fuselage, and the S-69 has demonstrated a speed of 488km/h. In 1982 these aircraft were developed into a new XH-59B configuration with advanced rotors, new powerplant, and a ducted pusher propeller at the tail. This approach was seen as a possible solution to the Army's search for a new light attack helicopter (LHX), and further funding was recommended. The S-69/XH-59 programme was abandoned, however, and the need for LHX was only answered in the 1990s with the selection of the RAH-66 Commanche.
D.Donald "The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft", 1997
Technical data for Sikorsky XH-59
Crew: 2, engine: 1 x Pratt Whitney of Canada PT6T-3 Turbo Twin Pac turboshaft, rated at 1360kW and 2 x Pratt & Whitney J60-P-3A turbojets, 1350kg of thrust, rotor diameter: 10.97m, fuselage length: 12.42m, height: 4.01m, take-off weight: 4960kg, max speed: 518km/h, cruising speed: 185km/h, ceiling: 4570m


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