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Kappa 固体火箭发动机

2018-3-31 19:03| 发布者: dymodel| 查看: 184| 评论: 0|原作者: dymodel

摘要: 导言 Late in the summer of 1999, I set out to design and construct a rocket motor quite unlike any previous motor that I'd previously developed.晚在1999年夏季,我阐述了设计和建造一个火箭发动机相当不同 ...
导言 Late in the summer of 1999, I set out to design and construct a rocket motor quite unlike any previous motor that I'd previously developed.晚在1999年夏季,我阐述了设计和建造一个火箭发动机相当不同以往任何汽车,我想要以前的发展。 All the motors that I had built previously were powered by the KN-Sucrose propellant.所有汽车,我已建成以前供电所千牛蔗糖推进剂。 These were of relatively simple design, which provided a high thrust with a very short burn, a consequence of unrestricted-burning grains.这些都是比较简单的设计,提供了一个高推力与在很短的烧伤,后果无限制的燃烧粒。 The steel casings used for these motors were well suited to this purpose, providing the required strength at the high temperatures experienced during operation.钢套管,用于这些马达,以及适合这个目的,提供所需的强度在高温天气期间,经验丰富的运作。 This approach resulted in highly reliable motors that were capable of rapidly boosting my rockets aloft, which helped ensure stability of the rockets.这种做法导致在高度可靠的电动机有能力迅速提高我国火箭,高举,这有助于确保稳定的火箭。 
  My goal then became one to design a motor that would be capable of boosting a rocket to a much higher altitude, targeted at 10 000 feet, or 3 km.我的目标,然后成为一个设计的马达将能够推动火箭,以高得多的高度,针对一○ ○○○英尺,或3公里。 This represented a nearly threefold increase in altitude with respect to any previous rocket I had launched.这代表了近三倍,增加在高空与尊重以往任何时候我曾火箭发射。 Preliminary analysis indicated that K-Class performance of about 2000 Ns impulse would be capable of achieving this goal with a sufficient margin to allow for a respectably sized rocket and payload.初步分析表明,钾级的性能约2000年的NS冲动,将能够实现这一目标具有足够的保证金,让一个respectably大中型火箭的有效载荷。 I opted to design the motor to operate interchangeably with either of the two contemporary, and easier to cast propellants: KN-Dextrose and KN-Sorbitol.我选择了设计汽车经营互换与任何两个当代,更容易铸造推进剂:千牛-葡萄糖和千牛-山梨醇。 Although I considered the use of KN-Sucrose as a third alternative, this option was later dropped, as it would have necessitated modifications to the nozzle due to the more rapid burn rate虽然我认为使用千牛蔗糖作为第三种选择,这个选择,后来下降,因为这将有必要修改喷嘴由于要更迅速的烧伤率 
  The motor powered by Dextrose-based propellant is designated Kappa-DX , and for Sorbitol-based, the designation is Kappa-SB .汽车动力由葡萄糖为基础的推进剂是指定的河童的DX ,以及山梨醇为基础,指定是Kappa值锑 。 
  Physically, the size of the proposed motor was such that the use of steel for a casing would have resulted in a significant weight penalty, since steel has a density of nearly three times that of aluminum alloy (for similar strength).身体上,大小建议电机等认为,使用钢套管会导致在一个显着的重量罚款,因为钢的密度近3倍,铝合金(类似强度) 。 The obvious reason for minimizing motor "dead" mass is to make the rocket lighter, providing improved mass ratio, or increased payload capacity.显而易见的原因,尽量减少汽车“死”的群众,是使火箭更轻,提供更好的质量比,或增加有效载荷能力。 But another important motive is stability.但另一个重要动机是稳定。 A heavy motor drives the rocket cg aft, which is opposite to what is desired.沉重的马达驱动器,火箭尾部的CG ,这是对面的什么是理想。 
  The use of thin-walled aluminum alloy for the casing represented a significant challenging, particularly as its strength is greatly reduced at elevated temperature.使用薄壁件铝合金的外壳是一个重大的挑战性,尤其是因为其实力大大减少,在高温下。 Therefore, an effective casing insulation was required to be developed, which turned out to be a bigger challenge than anticipated.因此,一个有效的绝缘套管,需要加以发展,演变成一场更大的挑战比预期的。 
  Another key departure from my earlier designs was the grain configuration.另一个关键离开我刚才的设计是粮食的配置。 An unrestricted-burning grain with consequential high thrust and short burn time would impose undesired high g-loading to any sensitive payload.无限制的燃烧粮食与相应的高推力和短期的燃烧时间将施加不受欢迎的高克装到任何敏感的有效载荷。 As well, due to the high terminal velocity, the aerodynamic drag penalty would be particularly great.同时,由于高终端速度,气动阻力的刑罚将是特别大。 It was felt that a better approach was to have the motor produce lower thrust, but with a longer burn time.据认为,更好的做法是有电动机产生较低的推力,但一段较长的燃烧时间。 As such, a BATES grain profile was chosen, with the grain consisting of four individual segments.因此,贝茨粮食剖面的选择,与粮食构成的四个人的部分。 Burning would occur at the central core as well as the segment ends.燃烧会出现在中环的核心,以及为部分结束。 This necessitated developing an effective means of inhibiting the outer segment surfaces from burning (this would turn out to be the most formidable and frustrating challenge).这需要发展的一个有效手段抑制外节表面燃烧(这将又是最可怕的和令人沮丧的挑战) 。 Motor capacity allows for a grain mass of up to 1.5 kg (3.3 lb.).汽车的能力,允许一个大规模的粮食多达1.5公斤( 3.3磅) 。 Empty weight of the assembled motor is 2.40 lbs.空重量组装汽车是2.40磅。 (1.09 kg.). ( 1.09公斤) 。 
  In order to design the motor, an Excel spreadsheet was created which used the propellants' characterization data to calculate predicted motor performance, such as chamber pressure and thrust as a function of time.在以设计汽车, Excel试算表创建中使用的推进剂'表征的数据来计算预测,汽车的性能,如商会的压力和推力作为一个时间的函数。 From this, predicted total impulse and specific impulse could be derived for various motor and grain configurations.从这个预言,总的冲动和具体的冲动,可以产生各种电机和粮食的配置。 The starting point for all this, however, was the motor casing.起点为所有这一切,不过,是电机外壳。 Earlier that summer, I had come upon a quantity of 2 ½ inch thin-walled 6061 aluminum alloy tubing.刚才那年夏天,我曾来后,一批2 ½英寸薄壁件6061铝合金管材。 This formed the basis for designing the Kappa motor.这形成了基础设计Kappa值马达。 Since I wanted to minimize overall motor mass, and maximize operating efficiency, the structural limit of this casing material set the maximum operating pressure (MEOP) of the motor.因为我想,以尽量减少汽车的整体质量,最大限度地的经营效率,结构性的限制,这套管材料设置最高操作压力( meop )的汽车。 
  During the development phase, the Kappa motor was static test fired a total of four times, and was subsequently used to propel the Cirrus One rocket to an altitude of over 10,000 feet, in April 2001.在发展阶段, Kappa值电机静力试验,发射了总共4次,并随后用于推进Cirrus的其中一枚火箭,以海拔超过一点〇万英尺,在2001年4月。

1.kdx - 001葡萄糖为基础的推进剂。 Inhibitor and casing liner failed; resulting overpressurization led to catastrophic motor failure抑制剂和套管班轮失败;造成overpressurization导致灾难性的电机故障
2. kdx - 002抑制剂和班轮重新设计;成功发射
3. ksb - 001山梨醇为基础的推进剂;成功发射
4. ksb - 002山梨醇为基础的推进剂点火改性方法;成功发射
5. Cirrus的一个成功飞行对河童的DX汽车 
Full details regarding problems encountered and design modifications may be found in the test reports for each of the above tests.全部细节方面遇到的问题和设计上的修改可能会发现,在测试报告,上述各个测试。
Altitude simulations using the SOAR program predict that the Kappa rocket motor will boost a 15 lb. (7 kg.) , 2.5 inch (6.35 cm) diameter rocket , with a constant Cd=0.4, to an altitude of over 11 000 feet (3.3 km.).高空模拟使用飙升,计划预测,该河童火箭发动机将推动一个15磅( 7公斤) , 2.5英寸( 6.35厘米)直径的火箭,与不断的CD = 0.4 ,海拔超过一一零零零英尺( 3.3公里) 。 Maximum mach number would be 0.90.最高马赫数将0.90 。 A similar rocket designed for minimal drag and slightly reduced mass could achieve Mach 1.07 (initial Cd=0.25, Cd@M1.07=0.417).类似的火箭设计为最小的拖曳和略为减少群众可以达到1.07马赫(初步的CD = 0.25 , cd@m1.07 = 0.417 ) 。
View SOAR output file 1鉴于飙升, 输出文件的一
View SOAR output file 2鉴于飙升, 输出文件2     






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