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由钻石和核废料制成的电池可能会持续几千年

2018-4-22 19:33| 发布者: dymodel| 查看: 473| 评论: 0|原作者: green

摘要: 布里斯托大学的物理学家和化学家团队开发了一种新型电池,可以改变我们对长期储能和发电的思考方式。研究人员研究了核废料的问题,并提出了一个电池,使用人造钻石将这种废物转化为核能,而不必担心污染。
布里斯托大学的物理学家和化学家团队开发了一种新型电池,可以改变我们对长期储能和发电的思考方式。研究人员研究了核废料的问题,并提出了一个电池,使用人造钻石将这种废物转化为核能,而不必担心污染。
钻石

材料科学教授汤姆·斯科特(Tom Scott)教授说:“没有运动部件,没有排放物产生,不需要维护,只是直接发电。”通过将放射性材料封装在钻石中,我们将核 废 料的长 期问题转 化为核 动力电池和长期供 应 清洁能源。
该团队以前使用Nickel-63开发了一个工作原型,但是现在正在通过使用碳-14(一种用于中和核电厂核反应的石墨块中的碳放射性版本)来提高效率。仅在英国,有95,000吨的这些石墨块含有高浓度的碳-14。碳-14可以从这些块中提取,然后变成人造钻石,安全地存储核废料以及创建核动力电池。

选择Carbon-14作为源材料,因为它发射短程辐射,其被任何固体材料快速吸收“,化学学院教授Neil Fox博士说,”这会使摄入危险或接触你的裸露的皮肤,但安全地保持在钻石,没有短程辐射可以逃脱。事实上,钻石是人类所知的最硬的物质,我们没有什么可以提供更多的保护。

与传统电池相比,金刚石电池功率低,但是它可以在没有电池之前做到:最后几千年。布里斯托大学的科学家说,以碳-14作为辐射源,需要5,730年才能达到50%的功率。

这种类型的寿命将使这些电池非常适合需要恒定电源,但是很难更换或充电电池安装后的应用程序 - 认为环境和结构传感器,起搏器,卫星,航天器和更多。科学家说,潜在用途的列表是如此巨大,他们正在从公众的建议。您可以使用#diamondbattery主题标签在社交媒体上分享您的想法。

原文如下:
A team of physicists and chemists at the University of Bristol have developed a new type of battery that could change the way we think of long-term energy storage and electricity generation. The researchers looked at the problem of nuclear waste and came up with a battery that uses a man-made diamond to turn that waste into nuclear energy without fear of contamination.

“There are no moving parts involved, no emissions generated and no maintenance required, just direct electricity generation," said Professor of Materials Tom Scott. "By encapsulating radioactive material inside diamonds, we turn a long-term problem of nuclear waste into a nuclear-powered battery and a long-term supply of clean energy.”

The team has previously developed a working prototype using Nickel-63, but is now working on improving efficiency by using carbon-14, a radioactive version of carbon, that is found in the graphite blocks used to moderate nuclear reactions in nuclear power plants. In the UK alone there are 95,000 tons of these graphite blocks containing high concentrations of carbon-14. The carbon-14 can be extracted from these blocks and then turned into a man-made diamond, safely storing the nuclear waste as well as creating a nuclear-powered battery.

“Carbon-14 was chosen as a source material because it emits a short-range radiation, which is quickly absorbed by any solid material," said Dr. Neil Fox, professor in the School of Chemistry. "This would make it dangerous to ingest or touch with your naked skin, but safely held within diamond, no short-range radiation can escape. In fact, diamond is the hardest substance known to man, there is literally nothing we could use that could offer more protection.”

The diamond battery is low power compared to conventional batteries, but could do something that no battery before it has: last thousands of years. The scientists at University of Bristol say that with carbon-14 as the radiation source, it would take 5,730 years for it to reach 50 percent power.

That type of lifetime would make these batteries well-suited for applications where a constant power source is needed but it is difficult to replace or charge batteries once they're installed -- think environmental and structural sensors, pacemakers, satellites, spacecraft and much more. The scientists say the list of potential uses is so vast, they're taking suggestions from the public. You can share your ideas on social media using the hashtag #diamondbattery.

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