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一个低成本的热高峰期检测镍镉电池充电器

2018-4-22 15:17| 发布者: dymodel| 查看: 470| 评论: 0|原作者: dymodel

摘要: 电动模型飞机和汽车行业已产生了扑朔迷离的数组领域为镍镉电池充电器,汽车电池盒。 These range from simple 6 or 7 cell chargers consisting of a resistor and mechanical timer, to more complex chargers with ...
电动模型飞机和汽车行业已产生了扑朔迷离的数组领域为镍镉电池充电器,汽车电池盒。 These range from simple 6 or 7 cell chargers consisting of a resistor and mechanical timer, to more complex chargers with peak detection, cycling, and the ability to handle 36 cell packs.这些范围从简单的6或7细胞充电器构成的电阻和机械计时器,更复杂的充电器,与高峰期的检测,骑自行车,和处理能力36细胞包。 The resistor/timer type of charger is cheap, but it is has two drawbacks: it might not fully charge the pack in the allotted time, or it might overcharge the pack.电阻器/定时器类型的充电器是廉价,但它是有两个缺点:它可能不会完全充电包在限定的时间,或可能收取过高的包装。 The more complex chargers have none of these drawbacks, but they are very expensive.更复杂的充电器有没有这些缺点,但他们非常昂贵。 

  The charger described in this article can charge packs of 4 to 7 cells with capacities ranging from 600mAh to 2Ah.充电器本文中所描述的可收取包4日至7细胞的能力不等,从600mah ,以2ah 。 The charger automatically begins charging when a pack is connected.充电器会自动开始收费时,一包是连接。 It charges at a (nearly) constant current (adjustable), and terminates the charge when the pack begins to get warm (a NiCd pack begins to warm up when it has reached full charge).它的收费(近)恒电流(可调) ,并终止收费时,包开始得到温暖( 1镍镉电池包开始热身时,它已经达成了全面收费) 。 An LED indicates that charging is in progress. 1主导表明,收费是在进步。 

  The Circuit电路 

  The circuit for the charger (Figure 1) is simple.电路的充电器(图1 )很简单。 Z1A is a comparator which compares the voltage on its two inputs and produces a high output when the "+" input (pin 5) is higher than the "-" input (pin 6), and a low output otherwise. z1a是一个比较比较电压它的两个投入和生产的高输出时, “ + ”输入(引脚5 )是高于“ -”输入密码( P IN6 ) ,和低产出,否则。 R1 and R2 form a voltage divider, presenting a fixed voltage (about 7V) to pin 5. R1和R2的形成一个分压器,提出了一个固定的电压(约7 V )引脚5 。 A pair of thermistors (TR1 between the PAK+ and TEMP terminals, and TR2 between the TEMP and GND terminals; see Figure 2) form another voltage divider which presents a voltage to pin 6.一对热敏电阻( tr1之间的白+和气温码头,和tr2之间的气温和GND码头;见图2 )另一种形式的分压器,其中提出了一种电压引脚6 。 This voltage is proportional to the temperature difference between TR1 and TR2.这个电压是成正比的温差之间的tr1和tr2 。 When TR1 is within 10°C of TR2, this voltage is below 7V, and the output of Z1A turns on Q1.当tr1是在10 ° C时的tr2 ,这个电压低于7 V ,输出的z1a轮流对第一季度。 This causes current to flow through Q2, R5, and R4, turning Q2 on.这将导致目前流经第二季度, R5的,和R4 ,至于第2季对。 This in turn causes Q3 to conduct, resulting in current flow through the NiCd pack connected between the PAK+ and PAK- terminals.这反过来又导致第三季进行,导致在目前的流量通过镍镉电池包之间的连接白沙+和百码头。 The amount of current flowing through Q3 (and thus the pack) is determined by the current flowing through Q2, which in turn is determined by the setting of R5.中电流流动量的通过第三季(从而包) ,是由目前流经第二季度,这反过来又取决于定R5的。 The current can range from about 2A to 5A.目前的范围可从约2 A至5 。 While Q1 is on, current will also flow through LED1 and R6, thus illuminating LED1 to indicate that charging is in progress.而第一季度是对,目前也将流经led1和r6 ,从而启发led1表明收费是在进步。 

    

  Figure 1.图1 。 Charger schematic.充电器的示意图。 Click to enlarge.点击放大图片。 

  As the temperature of TR1 rises, the voltage at pin 6 rises.随着温度的上升, tr1 ,电压引脚6上升。 When the temperature of TR1 exceeds that of TR2 by 10°C or more, pin 6 will exceed 7V, and Z1A will turn off Q1, Q2, and Q3, terminating the charge.当温度超过tr1的tr2 10 ° C或更多,针六将超过7 V , z1a将关闭第一季,第二季,第三季,终止收费。 Z1B performs the same comparison as Z1A, but it's output is used to provide hysteresis (the current flowing into the base of Q1 pulls Z1A's output too low for it to perform this function). z1b执行相同的比较z1a ,但它的输出是用来提供滞后(目前流入的基础上一季度拉动z1a的产量太低,因为它履行这一职能) 。 When Z1B goes low, current flows through R7, lowering the voltage at pin 5 to about 1.4V.当z1b云低,目前流经r7 ,降低电压引脚5至约1.4v 。 This ensures that the charger will not switch back on as the pack cools off (unless it cools to about 50°C below ambient).这将确保该充电器将不会切换回就作为包冷却小康(除非它冷却至约50 ℃以下的环境) 。 The only way to restart the charge is to disconnect the pack being charged.唯一的出路,以重新启动收费是断开包被起诉。 This will disconnect TR1, causing pin 6 to go to 0V, which will turn the charger back on.这将断开tr1 ,造成引脚6到0 V ,这将反过来充电器就回。 Since there is now no pack connected, no current will flow through Q3, even though the CHARGE LED is lit.既然有,现在没有包连接,目前还没有将流经第三季,即使主管领导的是点燃。 When a pack with a sufficiently cool TR1 is plugged in, charging will recommence.当一包与足够的冷静tr1是在堵塞,收费将重新开始。

TR1 and TR2 are identical thermistors. tr1和tr2是相同的热敏电阻。 Their resistance is 10kΩ at 25°C, and the resistance increases or decreases by about 4% for each 1°C fall or rise in temperature (the actual rate of decrease and increase varies with temperature).他们的抵抗是10K的ω在25 ° C ,和抵抗增加或减少4 %左右,每1 ° C的下降或上升的温度(实际利率的下降,并增加不同温度) 。 TR2 is installed in the charging cable near the charging plug to measure ambient temperature. tr2是安装在充电线附近的收费外挂程式来衡量环境温度。 TR1 is installed in the battery pack to measure pack temperature. tr1是安装在电池组来衡量包温度。 By using two thermistors, the charger will shut off based on the temperature rise instead of the absolute temperature (otherwise the pack will be overcharged on a cold day or undercharged on a hot day).通过使用两个热敏电阻,充电器,将关闭的基础上,温度上升,而非绝对温度(否则包将多收的一对非一日之寒或undercharged上的一个热点天) 。 

  Connectors and Cables连接器和电缆 

  When I first built this charger, I used 4-pin computer power supply connectors for charging my packs.当我第一次兴建的这个充电器,我用4针电脑电源供应连接器的收费我的包。 My packs were all wired permanently into my planes, so this connector does not need to handle the motor current.我的包被全部有线永久到我的飞机,使这个连接器,并不需要处理电机电流。 Even if you connect your packs to your planes with connectors (eg. Sermos), each pack could have a separate charge connector, thus reducing wear and tear on the more critical power connectors.即使你连接你的包到您的飞机与连接器(如sermos ) ,每套可以有一个单独的负责连接器,从而减少磨损,对较关键的电源连接器。 I use the connector with the male housing (and female pins) in the plane, and the female/male connector on the charger.我使用的连接器与男性房屋(女针) ,在飞机上,与女性/男性连接器,充电器。 Computer power supply splitter cables are a good source of these connectors.电脑电源供应分配器电缆是一个很好的来源,这些连接器。 I use the red and yellow leads for the battery + and - connections, and the two black leads for the thermistor (TR1).我用红色和黄色的线索电池+和-连接,和两个黑色线索热敏电阻( t r1) 。 

  Figure 2 illustrates how the cable, connectors, and battery pack should be wired.图2说明了如何电缆,连接器和电池组应有线。 

    

  Figure 2.图2 。 Cable schematic.电缆示意图。 Click to enlarge.点击放大图片。 

  Note that the order of the wires on the left side of Figure 2 does not correspond to the order of the outputs on the right side of Figure 1. 请注意,该命令的电线上左边的图2 不相符秩序的产出在右边的图1 。 Refer to the output and wire names when making up the cable! The PAK+ and PAK- conductors should be 18ga or 16ga, since they must handle up to 5A. 是指输出和电线的名字时,弥补电缆!白沙+和北导体应18ga或16ga ,因为他们必须处理多达5 。 The GND and TEMP conductors can be thinner since they handle less than 3mA.该接地和气温导体可以更薄,因为他们处理不少于3毫安。 

  For the 12V+ and 12V- inputs to the charger, use a two conductor 18ga or 16ga cable terminated with large clips suitable for connection to a car battery.为12V的+和12 -投入,充电器,使用两个导体18ga或16ga电缆终止与大剪辑适合连接到汽车电池。 Lamp cord is good for this.灯线是好的,对于这一点。 

  As the diagram implies, I had a separate thermistor in each of my packs.作为图意味着,我有一个单独的热敏电阻器在我的每个包。 Later, I moved away from having a charge connector on each pack, and I made a single charge connector that plugged onto the end of my charger cable.后来,我迁离后,收费器对每一个包,我和一个单一的负责连接器插入到年底,我的充电器电缆。 This connector had a pair of Sermos connectors for charging, and a short lead with the thermistor on it for temperature sensing.这个连接器有一个对sermos连接器的收费,并在短期内导致与热敏电阻上,它为温度传感。 This required that I install a normally-open START push-button between the TEMP and GND terminals, since the charger will not reset automatically with TR1 permanently connected.这就要求我安装一个通常开放式启动按键之间的气温和GND码头,由于充电器将不会自动复位与tr1永久连接。 To charge using this method, you have to remember to insert the temperature probe into the pack.收取使用这种方法,你必须记住插入温度探头进入包。 

  Construction建设 

  The circuit is designed to be installed in a Radio Shack® project case (see Figure 5 and parts list).电路设计,可以安装在一个Radio Shack的®项目案(见图5和零件清单) 。 Any suitably sized enclosure with a metal lid (or an all-metal enclosure) will do.任何适当大小的外壳,金属盖(或一全金属外壳)将这样做。 R5 is glued to the component side of the board, with short lengths of wire connecting it to the appropriate pads. R5的是胶合板,以组件方面的董事会,短长度的电线连接到适当的港口及机场发展策略。 The lid of the case is drilled for R5 and LED1.盖子的情况是,为R5的操练和led1 。 The potentiometer is then installed in the appropriate hole, and this holds the board in place inside the case.该电位器是安装,然后在适当的孔,这是举行董事会在的地方,里面的情况

Here is the printed circuit pattern for the charger:这里是印刷电路模式充电器: 

    

  Figure 3.图3 。 Copper side.铜的一面。 Actual size is 1.9" x 1.6"实际尺寸是1.9 “ × 1.6 ” 

  The following diagram illustrates component placement on the board:下面的图表说明,元件贴装于董事会: 

    

  Figure 4.图4 。 Component side.组成方。 

  Solder short lengths of wire to the appropriate terminals of R5.焊短长度的导线,以适当的终端R5的。 Glue R5 to the board, ensuring that R5's shaft is in line with the holes for LED1, and solder the leads.胶R5的向董事会,确保R5的的骨干,是符合孔led1 ,和焊料的线索。 Install LED1, paying attention to polarity.安装led1 ,注意极性。 The negative lead (usually indicated by a dot, flat spot, or shorter lead on the LED) is furthest from R5.负面铅(通常是显示一个点,平点,或较短的铅对LED )的最远的是从R5的。 The LED should be installed so it is high enough above the board to protrude through the corresponding hole that you'll make for it in the case.发光二极管应安装所以这是不够高,上述董事会protrude通过相应的孔,您作出的,它在此案。 

  Transistor Q2 should be laid flat on the board.晶体管第二季度要重点抓好单位的董事会。 A piece of aluminum channel, about 1.5" long and the width of Q2 should be placed on the copper side of the board, extending past the end of the board. Hold Q2, the board, and the aluminum channel together with an appropriate sized bolt. Ensure that the channel does not short circuit any traces.一块铝渠道,约1.5 “长和宽度,第二季应该放在铜方的董事会,延长过去年底董事会。举行第二季度,董事会和铝渠道,连同一个适当大小的螺栓。确保该频道不短路的任何痕迹。 

  Install the remaining components, ensuring that none of them stick up high enough to interfere with the case once the board is installed.安装其余组件,以确保他们都不坚持了足够高的干涉与案件有关,一旦董事会安装。 Transistor Q1 should have it's rounded side facing R3.晶体管第一季应该有它的圆形方面临的R3的。 I suggest you use a socket for Z1, because it is easily damaged by soldering, and hard to remove if it is damaged.我建议你使用一个插座z1 ,因为它是很容易损坏的焊接,并努力消除如果是损坏。 Install the socket, with pin 1 at the top left corner.安装插座,与第一脚在左上角。 

    

  Transistor Q3 should be installed on a hefty heatsink on the outside of the case and connected to the rest of the circuit with wires.晶体管的第三季,应安装在大幅的散热片对外界的案件,并连接到其余的电路电线。 The emitter of Q3 connects to the point marked E and the base to the point marked B. If the leads are not marked on your transistor, refer to the bottom-view diagram at right for the pin-out (click on the diagram to enlarge it if your browser doesn't show it clearly).发射的第三季度连接到这一点,标志着E和基地,以点显着b.如果导致未标示在您的晶体管,是指自下而上的检视图右为销出(点击图放大如果您的浏览器不显示,它清楚) 。 Use 16ga or 18ga wire for the emitter-to-E connection.使用16ga或18ga线为辐射源到E型连接。 

  Connect the charging cable to the circuit.连接充电线,以电路。 Connect the PAK+, TEMP, and GND leads as marked on the board.连接白沙+ ,气温,和GND导致作为标记的董事会。 Connect the PAK- lead to the collector of Q1 (the case).连接百导致集电极第一季度(案件) 。 Connect the supply leads to the circuit at the points marked 12V+ (red) and 12V- (black).连接供应导致的电路上,使该点显着12V的+ (红色)和12 - (黑色) 。 

  Install everything in the case.安装的一切情况。 Figure 5 shows how the front panel will look.图5显示如何将前面板的外观。 The circuit board occupies the left half of the case.电路板左侧的占有一半的情况下。 The heat sink for Q3 is installed on the right half of the front panel.该散热器为第三季是安装在右边一半的前面板。 The heat sink for Q2 extends past the circuit board, underneath the top-right quarter of the case.该散热器为第二季扩大,过去的电路板,下顶的权利,有四分之一的案件。 LED1 protrudes through a vinyl grommet, providing more contrast. led1 protrudes通过乙烯基置管术,提供更多的反差。 

    

  Figure 5.图5 。 Panel layout.面板布局。

Testing and Calibration检测和校准 

  Connect the power leads to a 12V source (eg. a car battery).连接电源导致了12V的来源(如汽车电池) 。 The LED should light immediately.发光二极管应立即轻。 Connect a 50kΩ potentiometer between the PAK+ and TEMP leads, with the resistor set at the half way point.连接为50k ω电位器之间的白+和气温线索,与电阻定于中途点。 The LED should stay lit.发光二极管应保持发亮。 Slowly decrease the resistance.慢慢地减少阻力。 When the resistance reaches approximately 10K (assuming 20°C room temperature), the LED should go out.当阻力达到约10K的(假设20 ° C时室温) ,导致应该走出去。 The LED should stay off even as you increase the resistance again.发光二极管应留小康,甚至当您增加阻力。 Temporarily disconnecting and reconnecting the potentiometer should cause the LED to light once again.暂时断开和重新电位应的原因,导致轻一遍。 

  To calibrate the charging current, use an ammeter in line with the PAK+ lead (an extra pair of 4-pin connectors is handy for this).校准充电电流,使用一个电表在符合白+铅(一对额外的4针连接器是为方便这) 。 Monitor the current when charging a depleted pack (the current will reduce towards the end of the charge, especially when charging 7 cell packs).监察时,目前的收费枯竭包(目前将减少在接近年底的收费,特别是当收费7细胞包) 。 Note the settings of R5 required for different currents and mark them on the case if you wish.注意:设置R5的需要不同的电流和马克他们对此案如果你想。 

  When using the charger for the first time, monitor it carefully.当使用充电器的第一时间,仔细监测。 Feel the pack from time to time (don't touch the thermistor though or your body heat will terminate the charge).觉得包从时间,时间(不涉及热敏电阻,虽然或您的体温将终止收费) 。 The pack should barely start to warm up before charging stops.包装应勉强开始热身之前,收费站。 

  Parts List零件清单 

  The following table lists all the parts needed.下表列出了所有零件的需要。 Radio Shack® part numbers are provided for those parts available there. Radio Shack的®零件号码提供的那些部分可有。 The thermistors used in the prototype are from Radio Shack, although almost any thermistor with a 3% to 5% resistance drop per 1°C temperature rise will do.该热敏电阻原型中采用的是由Radio Shack的,虽然几乎所有的热敏电阻与3 %至5 %的阻力下降,每1 ° C的温度上升将尽。

部分Description 描述Radio Shack® Radio Shack的®
R1 R1的33kΩ ¼W 33k ω 6.3瓦特271-1341
R2 R2的47kΩ ¼W 47 K ω 6.3瓦特271-1342
R3, R4 R3中, R4的10kΩ ¼W 10K的ω 6.3瓦特271-1335
R5 R5的50kΩ small potentiometer*为50k ω小电位器*NA娜
R6 r6470Ω ¼W 470ω 6.3瓦特271-1317
R7 r74.7kΩ ¼W 4.7k ω 6.3瓦特271-1330
C1的C10.1μF 50V 0.1μ f 50 V的272-1069
LED1 led1High-brightness LED高亮度LED276-87
Q1第一季度2N3904, 2N2222, or equiv. 2n3904 , 2n2222 ,或equiv 。276-2009
Q2第2季TIP42, MJEF34, or equiv. tip42 , mjef34 ,或equiv 。276-2027
Q3第三季2N3055 or equiv. 2n3055或equiv 。276-2041
Z1 z1LM393 dual comparator lm393双比较NA娜
TR1, TR2 tr1 , tr2Thermistor热敏电阻271-110
Miscellaneous杂项4" x 2 1/8" x 1 5/8" case* 4 “ × 2 1 / 8 ” × 1 5 / 8 “案件*270-231
2" x 2" TO-3 heat sink* 2 “ × 2 ” - 3散热器*NA娜
knob to fit R5旋钮,以适应R5的274-403
vinyl grommet to fit LED乙烯基置管术,以适应主导64-3025

* Notes : If you cannot obtain an appropriately sized potentiometer, Radio Shack 271-1716 will do, but you'll need a larger case. * 备注 :如果您无法取得一个适当大小的电位器, Radio Shack的271-1716将尽,但您需要一个较大的案件。 You can also use a 1MΩ potentiometer, which will provide a wider current range (about 1A to 5A).您也可以使用1米ω电位器,这将提供一个更广泛的电流范围内(约1a ,以5A )条。 Ifyou cannot find an appropriate heat sink, you can get away without itif you use an all-metal case such as Radio Shack 270-239.如果您无法找到一个适当的散热片,你可以摆脱它如果您使用的是全金属外壳,如Radio Shack的270-239 。


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