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2018-4-22 11:43| 发布者: dymodel| 查看: 374| 评论: 0|原作者: js2008

摘要: 建设一个氢燃料电池    A fuel cell is a device that converts a fuel such as hydrogen, alcohol, gasoline, or methane into electricity directly. 燃料电池是一种装置,转换燃料,如氢,酒精,汽油,或甲烷 ...
  A fuel cell is a device that converts a fuel such as hydrogen, alcohol, gasoline, or methane into electricity directly. 燃料电池是一种装置,转换燃料,如氢,酒精,汽油,或甲烷直接转化为电能。 A hydrogen fuel cell produces electricity without any pollution, since pure water is the only byproduct.一氢燃料电池产生的电力,没有任何污染,由于纯净水是唯一的副产品。 
  Hydrogen fuel cells are used in spacecraft and other high-tech applications where a clean, efficient power source is needed.氢燃料电池中使用的航天器和其他高科技的应用场合一支廉洁,高效的电源是必要的。 
  You can make a hydrogen fuel cell in your kitchen in about 10 minutes, and demonstrate how hydrogen and oxygen can combine to produce clean electrical power.您可以作出的氢燃料电池在您的厨房在10分钟左右,并演示了如何氢气和氧气可以结合生产清洁的电力。 
  To make the fuel cell, we need the following:使燃料电池,我们需要以下条件: 
  One foot of platinum coated nickel wire, or pure platinum wire.一只脚的铂包覆镍丝,或纯铂丝。 Since this is not a common household item, we carry platinum coated nickel wire  .由于这是不是一个常见的家居项目,我们进行铂包覆镍丝 。 
  A popsicle stick or similar small piece of wood or plastic. 1冰棒Stick或类似的小一块木头或塑胶。 
  A 9 volt battery clip. 1 9伏电池剪辑。 
  A 9 volt battery. 1 9伏电池。 
  Some transparent sticky tape.一些透明的粘性胶带。 
  A glass of water.一杯水。 
  A volt meter.一伏米。 
  The first step is to cut the platinum coated wire into two six inch long pieces, and wind each piece into a little coiled spring that will be the electrodes in our fuel cell.第一步是要削减白金包覆丝分成两个6英寸长的乐曲,和风力每一块到小连续春天将电极在我们的燃料电池。 I wound mine on the end of the test lead of my volt meter, but a nail, an ice pick, or a coat hanger will do nicely as a coil form. i伤口排雷对测试结束导致我伏米,但一钉,一冰挑选,或一衣架将尽好作为一个线圈的形式。 
  Next, we cut the leads of the battery clip in half and strip the insulation off of the cut ends.接下来,我们削减导致的电池夹在半带绝缘小康的削减目标。 Then we twist the bare battery lead wires onto the ends of the platinum coated electrodes, as shown in the photo.然后我们扭裸电池导致电线上两端的铂涂层电极,所显示的照片。 The battery clip will be attached to the electrodes, and two wires will also be attached to the electrodes, and will later be used to connect to the volt meter.电池夹,将附在电极,电线和2也将连接到电极,并将于稍后被用于连接到伏米。 
  The electrodes are then taped securely to the popsicle stick.电极,然后录音稳妥地向冰棒坚持。 Last, the popsicle stick is taped securely to the glass of water, so that the electrodes dangle in the water for nearly their entire length.最后,冰棒坚持是录音稳妥地向一杯水,使电极dangle在水中的近他们的整个长度。 The twisted wire connections must stay out of the water, so only the platinum coated electrodes are in the water.扭曲的接线必须留出的水,因此只有铂涂层电极在水中。 
   Now connect the red wire to the positive terminal of the volt meter, and the black wire to the negative (or "common") terminal of the volt meter.现在连接红色线,以积极的终端的Volt米,黑线,以负面(或“共同” )终端的Volt米。 The volt meter should read 0 volts at this point, although a tiny amount of voltage may show up, such as 0.01 volts. Volt车米应改为0伏特,在这一点上,虽然有少量的电压可能会显示,如0.01伏特。 
  Your fuel cell is now complete.您的燃料电池现在已经完成。 
  To operate the fuel cell, we need to cause bubbles of hydrogen to cling to one electrode, and bubbles of oxygen to cling to the other.经营燃料电池,我们需要事业的泡沫成分氢抱一电极,和泡沫的氧不放其他。 There is a very simple way to do this.有一个很简单的方法来做到这一点。 
  We touch the 9 volt battery to the battery clip (we don't need to actually clip it on, since it will only be needed for a second or two).我们触及9伏电池,以电池夹(我们不需要,实际上它剪辑对,因为它只会在需要的第二次或2 ) 。 
  Touching the battery to the clip causes the water at the electrodes to split into hydrogen and oxygen, a process called electrolysis .谈到电池,以剪辑的原因,水在电极分为氢气和氧气,此过程叫电解 。 You can see the bubbles form at the electrodes while the battery is attached.你可以看到气泡的形式在电极,而电池是重视。 
  Now we remove the battery.现在我们取下电池。 If we were not using platinum coated wire, we would expect to see the volt meter read zero volts again, since there is no battery connected.如果我们不使用白金包覆丝,我们会期望看到的Volt米阅读零伏特再次,由于没有电池的连接。 
   However, platinum acts as a catalyst , something that makes it easier for the hydrogen and oxygen to recombine.不过,铂行为作为一种催化剂 ,这使得更容易为氢气和氧气重组。 
  The electrolysis reaction reverses.电解反应逆转。 Instead of putting electricity into the cell to split the water, hydrogen and oxygen combine to make water again, and produce electricity.而不是把电力进入细胞分裂的水,氢气和氧气结合起来,使水再次,并产生电力。

  We initially get a little over two volts from the fuel cell.我们最初得到多一点, 2伏特,从燃料电池。 As the bubbles pop, dissolve in the water, or get used up by the reaction, the voltage drops, quickly at first, then more slowly.由于泡沫的流行音乐,解散,在水,或获得用罄的反应,电压下降,很快在第一,然后速度要慢得多。 
  After a minute or so, the voltage declines much more slowly, as most of the decline is now due only to the gasses being used up in the reaction that produces the electricity.后一分钟,或因此,电压下降的更为缓慢,因为大多数的下降是由于现在不仅要被用于气体,在反应产生电力。 
  Notice that we are storing the energy from the 9 volt battery as hydrogen and oxygen bubbles.通知指出,我们是储存的能量从9伏电池作为氢气和氧气泡沫。 
  We could instead bubble hydrogen and oxygen from some other source over the electrodes, and still get electricity.我们可以不是泡沫氢气和氧气从其他来源超过电极,并仍然获得电力。 Or we could produce hydrogen and oxygen during the day from solar power, and store the gasses, then use them in the fuel cell at night.或者我们可以产生氢气和氧气在白天由太阳能发电,和储存气体,然后使用他们在燃料电池在夜间进行。 We could also store the gasses in high pressure tanks in an electric car, and generate the electricity the car needs from a fuel cell.我们也可以储存气体在高压力的坦克在一电动车,并产生电力汽车的需要,从燃料电池。 
  How does it do that?它如何做呢? 
  We have two things going on in this project — the electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen gasses, and the recombining of the gasses to produce electricity.我们有两个事情就在这个项目-电解水成氢气和氧气的气体,以及重组的气体来产生电力。 We will look into each step separately.我们会研究的每一步分开。 
  The electrode connected to the negative side of the battery has electrons that are being pushed by the battery.电极连接到消极的一面的电池电子现正推行的电池。 Four of the electrons in that electrode combine with four water molecules. 4个电子在该电极相结合,四水分子。 
  The four water molecules each give up a hydrogen atom, to form two molecules of hydrogen (H 2 ), leaving four negatively charged ions of OH - . 4个水分子,每个放弃一个氢原子,形成两个分子的氢(与H 2 ) ,留下4负电荷的离子哦-。 
  Hydrogen gas bubbles form on the electrode, and the negatively charged OH - ions migrate away from the negatively charged electrode.氢气气泡的形式对电极,和带负电荷的哦-离子迁移脱离带负电荷的电极。 
  At the other electrode, the positive side of the battery pulls electrons from the water molecules.在其他电极,积极的一面电池拉动电子从水分子。 The water molecules split into positively charged hydrogen atoms (single protons), and oxygen molecules (O 2 ).水分子分裂成带正电荷的氢原子(单质子) ,以及氧分子( O 2的 ) 。 The oxygen molecules form bubbles at the electrode, and the protons migrate away from the positively charged electrode.该氧分子形成气泡在电极,和质子迁移脱离带正电荷的电极。 
  The protons eventually combine with the OH - ions from the negative electrode, and form water molecules again.质子,最终结合起来,与哦-离子从负电极,形成水分子。 
  The Fuel Cell燃料电池 
  When we remove the battery, the catalytic action of the platinum causes the hydrogen (H 2 ) molecules to break up, forming positively charged hydrogen ions (H + , or protons), and electrons.当我们取下电池,催化行动白金原因氢( 2 )分子打破,形成了带正电荷的氢离子( H +的 ,或质子) ,和电子。 
  The electrons do not recombine with the protons because they are attracted to the electrode, which is positively charged due to the reaction happening at the opposite electrode.电子不重组与质子,因为他们是吸引到电极上,这是带正电荷的,由于反应发生在对面的电极。 
  At that other electrode, the oxygen molecules in bubbles on the platinum surface draw electrons from the metal, and then combine with the hydrogen ions (from the reaction at the other electrode) to form water.在其他电极,氧分子在气泡上的铂表面提请电子从金属,然后结合起来,与氢离子(从反应在其他电极) ,以水的形式。 
  The oxygen electrode has lost two electrons to each oxygen molecule.氧电极已失去两个电子,每个氧分子。 The hydrogen electrode has gained two electrons from each hydrogen molecule.氢电极已获得两个电子,每个氢分子。 The electrons at the hydrogen electrode are attracted to the positively charged oxygen electrode.电子在氢电极是吸引到带正电荷的氧电极。 Electrons travel more easily in metal than in water, so the current flows in the wire, instead of the water.电子旅行更容易在金属比在水中,所以目前的流动,在铁丝网,而不是水。 In the wire, the current can do work, such as lighting a bulb, or moving a meter.在铁丝网,目前可以做的工作,如照明一灯泡,或移动一米






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