设为首页收藏本站

科技网

科技网 门户 新能源 燃料电池 查看内容

研究人员发现更便宜,更高效的燃料电池

2018-4-22 11:09| 发布者: dymodel| 查看: 424| 评论: 0|原作者: tz2009

摘要: 质子交换膜燃料电池在一,氢是由美联储从坦克(一) ,它们的电子提取,并强迫( B),其中他们的运动产生电力;的部分后与氧气发生反应形成水,一部分被驱逐(丙),部分用于冷却设备。 它们主要是为潜在的应用在 ...


质子交换膜燃料电池在一,氢是由美联储从坦克(一) ,它们的电子提取,并强迫( B),其中他们的运动产生电力;的部分后与氧气发生反应形成水,一部分被驱逐(丙),部分用于冷却设备。

它们主要是为潜在的应用在已知的氢汽车,燃料电池是与几个尚未解决的问题有前途的技术,包括工作温度。科学家在 卡尔加里大学 发现了一种新的材料,允许燃料电池常见的工作在更高的温度,同时降低制造成本,增加效益。
质子交换膜燃料电池(和他们的问题)
燃料电池基本上是一个装置,可以从外部提供燃料生产没有内部燃烧,这对理论上允许更高的效率比传统的发动机发电。提取的燃料是从坦克和经历的化学反应,从中提取电子,然后强迫他们一个专用频道,他们的运动产生电力。
燃料电池可用于广泛的应用范围从 公共交通 至 无线电遥控车,以及便携式电子产品如 笔记本电脑 或移动电话。他们上运行,包括甲醇和甲酸不同燃料的数量。
但在实践中,当涉及到高功率密度应用,如交通,为选择要使用的燃料是有限的:从燃料中提取原子的能量水平要求高,迫使我们选择,因为其脆弱的氢原子成键( )以上,否则像甲烷强有力的候选人。
该电池使用氢气发电是质子交换膜燃料电池(PEMFC或简单的PEM )已知。其中,如上所述,电子被分离的氢分子,并通过发电电路旅行;为两部分,然后团聚,并与氧发生反应,然后他们生产的水,其中部分产品是一种浪费和部分被驱逐用于保持最佳温度的细胞。
目前,质子交换膜细胞事实上可以只生产能量低于90摄氏度,刚刚下了水的沸点,即使达到更高的气温将平均降低生产成本:事实上,与这些温度铂需要使用到它的氢分离组件,但气温较高,成本较低的材料可以被用来达到同样的效果。
有,当然,也是保持镜面问题高于水的冰点电池温度,这可能是一个在世界某些地区的严重问题。这些和其他问题为相对减少影响,质子交换膜燃料电池在运输所取得的一些原因。然而,希望的线索可能意味着我们可能会更接近解决这些问题比我们想象的。
质子交换膜燃料电池提高效率
在一 研究论文 发表在最近发行 化学性质,清水教授率领的卡尔加里大学一个团队如何解释一种新材料可以使能量产生更高的温度- 高达150摄氏度- 因此提高效率和降低成本。
该小组开发利用的物质也将燃料电池的反应会更有效,因为这些发生在气温较高的速度。 “这项研究将改变方式的研究人员认为,以燃料电池应用的候选人材料这一点, “清水教授发表了评论。
凯文Colbow ,研究和开发总监氢燃料电池制造商巴拉德动力系统,称为工作具有重要意义。 “我们相信,这些材料的导电性和稳健性进一步改善,可为质子交换膜燃料电池膜的下一代, “他说。
我们将继续监测质子交换膜燃料电池技术的进步,特别是作为一个有希望的 第二个解决方案 以同样增加燃料电池的工作温度下使用聚苯并咪唑-适合在消防队员使用的材料-最近也浮出水面。
2009年12月1日
In a PEM fuel cell, the hydrogen is fed by a tank from (A); their electrons are extracted and forced into (B), where their movement generates electricity; the parts later react with oxygen to form water, in part expelled (C) and in part used to cool the device.

Known mainly for their potential application in hydrogen cars, fuel cells are a promising technology with several unresolved issues, including working temperatures. Scientist at the University of Calgary have discovered a new material that allows a common kind of fuel cell to work at higher temperatures, increasing efficiency while decreasing manufacturing costs.
PEM fuel cells (and their issues)
A fuel cell is essentially a device that can produce electricity from externally supplied fuel without internal combustion, which allows for theoretically higher efficiency compared to traditional engines. The fuel is extracted from a tank and undergoes a chemical reaction that extracts electrons from it, then forcing them into a dedicated channel where their movement generates electricity.
Fuel cells can be used for a range of applications ranging from public transportation to radio controlled cars, as well as portable electronics such as laptops or mobile phones. They run on a number of different fuels including methanol and formic acid.
But in practice, when it comes to high power-density applications such as transportation, the choice for the fuel to be used is limited: extracting atoms from the fuel requires high energy levels, forcing us to choose hydrogen (because of its weak atomic bonding) over otherwise strong candidates like methane.
The cell that uses hydrogen to generate electricity is known as the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC or simply PEM). In it, as explained above, the electrons are separated from the hydrogen molecules and travel through a circuit generating electricity; as the two components then reunite and react with oxygen, they then produce water, which is in part expelled as a waste product and part used to maintain the cell at an optimal temperature.
Currently, PEM cells can in fact produce energy only below 90 Celsius degrees, just under the boiling point of water, even though achieving higher temperatures would mean lower production costs: in fact, with these temperatures platinum needs to be used to separate hydrogen into its components; but with higher temperatures, less expensive materials could be employed to achieve the same effect.
There is, of course, also the specular issue of keeping the cell temperature above the freezing point of water, which might be a significant problem in certain regions of the globe. These and other issues are some of the reasons for the relatively reduced impact that PEM fuel cells have made in transportation. However, promising leads may mean we might be closer to solving these problems than we think.
Improving efficiency in PEM fuel cells
In a research paper published in a recent issue of Nature Chemistry, a team led by Prof. Shimizu at the University of Calgary explained how a new material could allow energy to be produced at higher temperatures — up to 150 degrees Celsius — therefore improving efficiency and reducing costs.
Using the material developed by the team will also make fuel cells more efficient because reactions would occur faster at those higher temperatures. "This research will alter the way researchers have to this point perceived candidate materials for fuel cell applications," Prof. Shimizu commented.
Kevin Colbow, director of research and development at hydrogen fuel cell manufacturer Ballard Power Systems, called the work significant. "We believe that further improvement on conductivity and robustness of these materials could provide next generation membranes for PEM fuel cells," he said.
We'll continue monitoring the progress of PEM fuel cell technology, especially as a promising second solution to similarly increase the working temperatures of fuel cells using polybenzimidazole — the material used in firefighter suits — has also recently surfaced.

鲜花

握手

雷人

路过

鸡蛋

辽公网安备 21100402204006号|科技网 ( 辽ICP备07501385号-1   

GMT+8, 2019-7-19 22:47

Powered by tech-domain X3.4 Licensed

© 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

返回顶部