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低电流法电解水(转)

2018-4-22 10:15| 发布者: dymodel| 查看: 384| 评论: 0|原作者: relax

摘要: LOW CURRENT PROCESS OFWATER ELECTROLYSIS Low voltage process of water electrolysis is known from Faraday’s times.It is widely used in modern industry. Voltage of 1.6-2.3 volts is operationvoltage b ...
LOW CURRENT PROCESS OFWATER ELECTROLYSIS
Low voltage process of water electrolysis is known from Faraday’s times.It is widely used in modern industry. Voltage of 1.6-2.3 volts is operationvoltage between the anode and the cathode of the electrolyzer; current strengthis tens and hundreds of amperes. In accordance with Faraday’s law, energyconsumption for production of one cubic meter of hydrogen is nearly 4 kWh
in this case.

The analysis of the water molecule structure (Fig. 1)worked out by us shows the possibility of water electrolysis at minimal currentand even without it. The protons of the hydrogen atoms in water molecules canbe combined with each other and can form clusters. As a result, anorthohydrogen molecule is formed (Fig. 2). A question arises: is it possible toseparate this molecule from such cluster? The results of answers on thisquestion are given in Tables 1, 2 and 3.

  
  
  

  

  

  

  

  

  
Fig. 1. Water molecule diagram:

  
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 are numbers of  the electrons of the oxygen atom; P1, P2 are the hydrogen atom nuclei (the  protons); e1 and e2 are the electron numbers of the hydrogen atoms

  
  
  
  
  
  
Fig. 2. Formation diagram of
orthohydrogen: a) and b) water molecule  diagrams;

  
c) orthohydrogen

   
  

It is known that a gram-atom is equal to atomic massof substance; a grammolecule is equal to molecular mass of substance. Forexample, the grammolecule of hydrogen in the water molecule is equal to twograms; the gram-atom of the oxygen atom is 16 grams. The grammolecule of wateris equal to 18 grams. Hydrogen mass in a water molecule is 2x100/18=11.11%;oxygen mass is 16x100/18=88.89%; this ratio of hydrogen and oxygen is in oneliter of water. It means that 111.11 grams of hydrogen and 888.89 grams ofoxygen are in 1000 grams of water.
One liter of hydrogen weighs 0.09 g; one liter ofoxygen weighs 1.47 g. It means that it is possible to produce 111.11/0.09=1234.44liters of hydrogen and 888.89/1.47=604.69 liters of oxygen from one liter ofwater. It appears from this that one gram of water contains 1.23 liters ofhydrogen. Energy consumption for production of 1000 liters of hydrogen is 4 kWhand for one liter 4 Wh. As it is possible to produce 1.234 liters of hydrogenfrom one gram of water, 1.234x4=4.94 Wh is spent for hydrogen production fromone gram of water now.


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