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[信息] 可以储存更环保,更安全的液体电池

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发表于 2016-8-29 22:38:03 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
廉价的可再生能源,可以储存更环保,更安全的液体电池。在哈佛大学开发的一个新的流体电池,取村非常丰富,便易而且安全环保。

可以储存更环保,更安全的液体电池

可以储存更环保,更安全的液体电池


可以储存更环保,更安全的液体电池

可以储存更环保,更安全的液体电池

 楼主| 发表于 2016-8-29 22:38:36 | 显示全部楼层

可以储存更环保,更安全的液体电池

可以储存更环保,更安全的液体电池


原文:
Greener, safer flow battery could store renewable energy on the cheap

A new flow battery developed at Harvard University uses only Earth-abundant materials, making it cheaper, safer and greener than previous designs


Improving on their previous design, scientists at Harvard University have developed a cheap and highly adaptable flow battery that could prove ideal for storing renewable energy throughout the day. The battery is made using Earth-abundant materials, is much safer than previous designs, and could reach the market in as little as three years.

Lithium-ion batteries are great for smartphones and electric SUVs, but they may not be the best solution to handle the stresses that solar and wind power put on the electric grid. To get the most out of renewables, we need something more flexible, scalable, and most importantly, cheaper than a solid-state battery (Elon Musk would have you use lithium-ion cells for home storage too, but his entry-level Powerwall goes for US$3,000).

So-called flow batteries could be the perfect solution. Such devices store energy in liquid form, in external tanks, and collect or release power by having those liquids exchange ions through a special membrane. This makes flow batteries extremely flexible: their capacity can be tweaked by modifying the size of the tanks, and their power output can be changed by adjusting the area of the membrane. Flow batteries can also remain idle for long periods of time without losing charge and are not affected by temperature extremes.

Prof. Michael Aziz and team have now built on previous work to design a safer and greener flow battery. Their device relies on cheap and abundant elements like carbon, iron and potassium to form compounds that are nontoxic, fire-resistant and generally safer. As such, the battery might find a place in our homes to store the intermittent energy produced by solar panels (or portable wind turbine, if you've got one).

Flow batteries are a relatively new technology and, to put it mildly, their first generation didn't feature the best choice of materials. Such batteries have commonly used vanadium and bromine dissolved in acid as their electrolytes (energy-carrying liquids). Though effective, this combination is expensive, dangerous and even toxic.


In last year's development Aziz and his team designed a flow battery that dropped the vanadium for the more environmentally friendly quinones – naturally occurring chemicals involved in photosynthesis. Their latest battery improves on this by replacing bromine with ferrocyanide, which is commonly added to kitchen salt as an anticaking agent.

The new battery also works in an alkaline, not acidic, solution. The higher pH is less corrosive, allowing the tanks to be built out of plastic instead of heavier and more expensive metals. An alkaline environment creates more electrical resistance in the membrane, but this was compensated by increasing the battery's voltage.

According to the team, the cell's current efficiency exceeded 99 percent, while round-trip efficiency was measured at 84 percent. The data also suggests that the battery will have a lifetime of at least 1,900 cycles, which is much longer than a lithium-ion battery.

The Achilles' heel of the technology appears to be its low energy density, or amount of energy that can be stored inside the battery per unit volume. The researchers achieved 19 Wh per liter in their published study, and slightly higher figures using methods they've developed since.

This falls well short of lithium-ion batteries, which are closer to the 300 Wh/L mark. That could make a home-use flow battery out of the question for some (you'll most likely need a roomy basement). But for large-scale applications at the grid level, where space isn't such a concern and cost is the primary issue, these cheap, highly adaptable cells could prove to be the perfect solution.

The scientists are now working on improvements to increase cycle life and reduce the cost of the membrane. They tell us the battery could become commercially available in about three years' time.

发表于 2016-8-30 12:30:48 | 显示全部楼层
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更环保,更安全的流动电池可以储存可再生能源的廉价
在哈佛大学开发的一个新的流量电池只使用地球丰富的材料,使其更便宜,更安全,比以前的设计更环保
在他们以前的设计改进,哈佛大学的科学家们开发了一种廉价和高适应性的流动电池,可以证明是理想的存储可再生能源在一天。电池是使用地球丰富的材料,是比以前的设计更安全,并可以达到市场在尽可能少的三年。
锂离子电池是伟大的智能手机和电动SUV,但他们可能无法处理,太阳能和风力发电在电网中的应力的最佳解决方案。为了获得最大的可再生能源,我们需要更灵活的,可扩展的,最重要的是,比一个固态电池便宜(Elon Musk要你使用锂离子电池为家庭存储太多,但是他的入门级的Powerwall都是3000美元)。
所谓的流动电池可能是完美的解决方案。这种装置以液态形式储存能量,在外部容器中,通过一种特殊的膜通过这些液体交换离子而收集或释放能量。这使液流电池非常灵活:他们的能力,可以通过修改坦克的大小调整,其输出功率可以通过调节膜的面积变化。流电池也可以保持空闲很长一段时间,而不会失去电荷,并不会受到极端温度。
Michael Aziz教授和团队现在已经建立在以前的工作,设计一个更安全,更环保的电池。他们的设备依靠廉价和丰富的元素,如碳、铁和钾的形式,是无毒的化合物,和一般的安全防火。因此,电池可能会在我们的家中找到一个地方储存太阳能电池板(或便携式风力涡轮机,如果你有一个)产生的间歇性能量。
流动电池是一个相对较新的技术,并把它温和,他们的第一代没有功能的材料的最佳选择。这样的电池通常用钒和溴溶解在酸作为他们的电解质(能量携带液体)。虽然有效,这种组合是昂贵的,危险的,甚至是有毒的。
在去年的发展,阿齐兹和他的团队设计了一个流动的电池,把钒为更环保的天然醌类–参与光合作用的化学物质。他们最新的电池提高了通过与亚铁氰化钾代替溴,这是通常添加到食盐作为防结块剂。
新的电池也工作在碱性,而不是酸性的,解决方案。较高的pH值是不太腐蚀性的,允许的坦克是建立在塑料,而不是更重,更昂贵的金属。碱性环境在膜中产生更多的电阻,但这是通过增加电池的电压补偿。
根据团队,细胞的电流效率超过百分之99,而往返效率测定在百分之84。该数据还表明,电池将有至少1900个周期,这是远远长于锂离子电池的寿命。
该技术的阿基里斯的脚跟似乎是它的低能量密度,或可以存储在电池每单位体积的能量量。研究人员达到19瓦时每升在其发表的研究中,和稍高的人物用他们以来开发的方法。
这远低于锂离子电池,这是接近300瓦时/ L的标志。这可以使一个家庭使用的液流电池出问题了(你可能需要一个宽敞的地下室)。但在网格级的大规模应用,其中的空间是不是这样的关注和成本是首要问题,这些廉价的,高度适应能力的细胞可以被证明是完美的解决方案。
科学家们正在努力改进,提高循环寿命
来自苹果客户端来自苹果客户端
发表于 2016-11-3 15:36:46 | 显示全部楼层
学习中谢谢分享
发表于 2016-12-11 20:30:16 | 显示全部楼层

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发表于 2017-1-28 14:17:06 | 显示全部楼层
没看懂,看样子有点像氢氧燃料电池之类的
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