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[技术] 科纳尔的拖网渔船建造

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 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-27 23:24:19 | 显示全部楼层
Thru Hull Fitting

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

I decided to make each job I have to do in the engine room it's own post vs adding to the "back to work on the boat" post.
Now that I'm back working in the engine room I find myself wondering "why in the hell did I do that"? Maybe it's an older and wiser thing or maybe I just wasn't thinking right a couple of years ago, but either way I find myself having to do a bit of re-work.
My main engine is keel cooled with dry exhaust. My generator is cooled through a heat exchanger with wet exhaust. I had originally laid out the generator to be installed on the port side, but with all the weight I was putting to port, I thought it better that I move the gen-set over to starboard. Looking at the through hull fitting I had originally installed to service the gen-set ( a 1" pipe welded into the hull and threaded on its end), I began to feel this set up was totally inadequate for my future needs. Having realized just how lame my original thru hull was, the first order of business in the engine room was to remove the that 1" pipe and fabricate a more suitable through hull.
I don't want to punch a bunch of holes in my hull so I decided to fabricate a two inch sea chest that will handle my water intake needs. I want to have a fore and aft wash down set up, I might also want to have the option of raw water flushing the heads if fresh water gets scarce, I also need to think about possibly cooling my hydraulic system, and I need to be able to cool my generator.
I decided to install one 2" wate

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

r intake using socket weld flanges that will lead to a proper valve, then through a sea strainer to a manifold consisting of four or five 1" valves to direct water as I need.
I bought the socket weld flanges from my local plumbing supply house and used sch. 80 pipe for the thru hull fitting. Because I want to use stainless steel for my valving and manifold, I had to electrically isolate the thru hull from the stainless. I did this with a gasket and isolating bushings for the flange. The flange on the hull side is carbon steel, while the flange on the boat side is stainless steel. In the first picture, you can see the green coating on the carbon steel flange that is welded to the mild steel sch. 80 pipe.
After welding the thru hull pipe to the flange, I gave the piece a quick sand blasting before I welded it in place.
These pictures show the various parts along with the flange welded into the hull. On the last picture you can see the remnants of red dye I used to test the welds. Air testing this piece would have been difficult and while the welds looked good I decided to dye test just in case. I'm planning on making a trip to the scrap yard later this week to

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

see if I can find some valves and some piping. In the past I've been able to buy stainless steel ball valves at the scrap yard for $10.00, and with a little luck I'll also find some couplers and other bits I'll need.

 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-27 23:25:37 | 显示全部楼层
Scrap yard finds for the engine room
My excavating business is as poor as I've ever seen having been self employed for 20+ years. With my revenue down so low and my not wanting to not work on the boat even though I have much less cash to throw at the project, I've taken to visiting scrap yards looking for some material.
This post still reflects my working in the engine room, but I want to look at the value of utilizing used material.

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

Given the down turn in the economy, I had my mind set that I was going to have to sheath the engine room floor in plywood and probably paint it. While down at the scrap yard today unloading the fruits of me cleaning up around the shop, I noticed some aluminum diamond plate getting ready to be processed. The material was a double diamond plate pattern 3.5' x 7.5' x 1/4" thickness. There were 20 sheets, but from what I could remember five sheets would be plenty, so I went ahead and struck a deal for six sheets. We agreed on a price of $.80 per pound. For the six sheets my total costs were $300.00. The pattern of the diamond plate was nothing I'd ever seen before, and as you can see from this picture, it is a double diamond pattern. From here on out, I'm going to call it "Double D", or "DD". Personally, I am partial to "DD", and it just makes me happy thinking about it.
I also needed a 2" stainless ball valve for my sea chest, and a 1.5" stainless ball valve for my holding tank pump out station. This scrap yard had a large bin of stainless valves and it only took me a couple of minutes to find two I thought looked good. I paid $1.00 per pound for the valves so my total cost for the valves came to $18.00. Both valves were 316 grade.
Once back at the shop I took the valves apart, applied some lithium grease, re-assembled them, then air tested them to 40 psi. I only used 40 psi since I was

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

using PVC for my air test, and in all honesty, the valves will see no more than a two or three psi of pressure.
I also made a call to my local metal supplier to see what the costs were on new 1/4" diamond plate aluminum sheets. I was quoted a price of $3.75 per pound. The sheets of diamond plate I purchased weighed around 375 lbs. With the new cost of $3.75 I figured I got $1400.00 worth of diamond plate for $300.00. I'm also going to estimate the value of the valves @ $175.00 and $150.00 respectively, for a total valve value of $325.00. By purchasing used material, I think I can figure the new value of the material at about $1700.00, but my total outlay for this material was only $318.00. Quite a nice savings in my opinion. I should also say that the scrap yard paid me $249.00 for the 2700 lbs of scrap I dropped off.
One more thing I should add about the valves is that they are rated at 1000 psi, and I think they are sch. 80 or sch. 120. I can say with confidence that these valves are what I would call "beefy" valves, and have what I would guess double the duty rating as any valve one might buy from a marine catalog.
The aluminum diamond plate I purchased was obviously used as a cat walk or some other industrial application. This is a great example of why metal is such a good building material. While this material could have been in heavy service for 20+ years, a little work on my part and it will clean up and look just like new. I also think that the aluminum diamond plate will make my engine room floor as fine as any of the so called high end production plastic yachts on the market.

 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-27 23:27:29 | 显示全部楼层
Sea Chest- Final Resting Spot

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

OK, I'm getting kind of tired of the re-work, but I had to move my sea chest location once again. I had abandoned the first location as the intake was to small, increased the size of the intake and moved the sea chest to the area in front of the generator. After doing some assembly, I realized that the sea chest was going to be to close to the water line, and I want it a below the water line. I also felt that having it in front of the generator was going to be a pain in the ass, and I'm sure I'd be regretting it years down the road as I banged into it while servicing the generator. So, as much as it pained me, I moved the sea chest again. I turned it 90 degrees, and moved it another foot away from the generator.
During my recent visits to the scrap yards ( selling scrap metal), I've been scrounging around for some for some 2" 316 stainless. No luck on finding some, so I had to break down and make a small purchase of some new material. M

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

aking sure all my parts were 316L was important to me so having to buy new material was not such a bad thing given I could assure quality.
The first line of business on the sea chest was building the manifold. I used a 12" piece of 2" along with two 1" x 4" nipples. I cut the nipples in half on my lathe so I ended up with the four pieces needed for my valves. Using a hole saw, I bored four holes in the 2"x12" nipple so I would be able to weld in the valve stubs. I was going to use a boring head to make the bores, but the hole saw did just fine by using the micro feed on my mill and running water on the bit to keep it cool.
Welding the 1" nipples in the manifold was pretty easy. I stood the 1" stubs on the work bench then lowered the 2" manifold on to the stubs and held the manifold up with blocks. This way I was able to keep the stubs pl

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

umb, level, and square with the manifold without having to come up with a clamping contraption. I tacked the stubs in place, then placed the manifold in the vice and welded her up. I made two passes around the each stub. I air tested the manifold to 40 psi and I'll be damned if it passed on the first try.
I bolted the stainless flange to the flange I welded into the hull, and just for kicks I tested to see if they were electrically isolated. The electric isolation test was good.
I've yet to find a used 2" sea strainer, so I'm unable to finalize the assembly. I'm going to need to brace the manifold both vertically and horizontally, but I can't make the brace until I know the final location of the end after the sea strainer is in place. I also think I can lower the manifold 2" by using a close nipple vs the 4" nipple I have between the ball valve and the "T". I'm going to keep my eyes open for another valve that with an overall length of 4" vs the 6" valves I have now. I really can't finalize any of this until I I have a sea strainer.

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

I'm very happy with how the sea chest looks, and more happy with it's location. This set up will be extremely easy to service and bring various water intakes on or off line as I need them. I went with a "T" vs a 90 on building the sea chest in case I had to blow a clog out of the intake while under way. I can screw a nipple down in to the "T" to get above the water line, and clear any thing away without having to get into the water. If I had used a 90, cleaning from the inside would be difficult at best.

 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-27 23:29:21 | 显示全部楼层
Foam

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

I sprayed foam in the engine room and aft storage room otherwise known as the Lazarette.
I'm spraying a closed cell polyurethane fire retardant foam in these areas. The main reason for the foam is to stop condensation. Once the metal sees a temperature difference on the inside vs the outside, the metal will begin to condensate. Foam will insulate the metal thus preventing it from seeing the "other" temperature that will cause the "sweating".
I had spent about a month working in the engine room getting it ready for foam. I first finished painting the engine room w

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

ith alkyd enamel paint. This required a manual scuffing of the primed surface so the paint would adhere. After painting the room, I bolted firing strips to the steel framing as points to attach my finish wall and ceiling material. I had debated running conduit below the foam, and even went as far as buying flexible conduit and electrical boxes to do this job. My past mistakes have taught me to not get too far ahead of myself, so I decided to attach all my conduits, pipes, wires, etc.. on the finished wall/ceiling surfaces. This will make for a more cluttered look in the engine room, but everything will be where I can get my fingers on it for maintenance and future work.
Spraying the foam is not really a do it yourself project, but I decided to do it anyway. Foaming was not as hard a job as spraying my paint, but it did require me to move at a quick pace so the material would not set up in the tip of the gun. I had bought an extra dozen tips just in case, and I'm glad I did as the tips began to clog and needed freque

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

nt replacing. I wish I had gotten more yield out of the 600 board foot kit, but all in all I'm pretty happy with how far the material went.
The next step for the engine room is sound deadening the room. My plan for sound proofing is to attach 1" Rock Wool boards to the framing then cover the Rock Wool with a perforated aluminum panel. The idea is that the sound waves will go through the perforations on the aluminum panel then get absorbed by the rock wool. Once I get the bulk of the sound proofing in the engine room, I can lower my generator down into the room, then weld the access hole shut, and seal the engine room for the last time.

 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-27 23:32:06 | 显示全部楼层
Sound Proofing the engine room

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

The engine room received one more coating of paint on the hull and sole framing last weekend in preparation for starting the sound proofing. Well, I hope it's sound proofing, as it will be a real pain in the ass to re do this once the boat is launched.
My system for sound proofing is pretty basic. I foamed the metal ( see the last post), and now I'm attaching a 1" thick mineral wool board the the framing. Over this mineral wool I'll attach a perforated aluminum sheet as my finished wall material.
As best as I've learned, the idea behind sound dampening is to decouple the structure from the sound. Sound travels in waves and the idea behind getting rid of it is to try to absorb it. My system is to provide a barrier between the living space's and the engine room noise. My thoughts are that the sound will pass through the perforated aluminum then be absorbed by the mineral wool board and also by the foam underneath.
The mineral wool I'm getting is discarded seconds that came out of a large sheet metal fabrication shop. I'd love to have 3' x 5' boards, but I'm only able to get 2'x4' boards ( the price is right though). Because I'm not able to pick my size, I'm having to adjust my framing. In the areas I know I'm going to have to attache lots of conduits, or other mechanical items, I'm first installing plywood before installing the rock wool board. With the plywood on the hull frami

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

ng ( 1/2" ply ), I don't have to worry about the rock wool laying out to hit the framing so there is almost no waste of the rock wool. I also have unlimited points of attachment for my future mechanical installations. For the ceiling though, I'm going to have to add a firing strip so the rock wool waste is minimized while I keep an eye on the weight I'm adding.
I've got a little of the product up and on the walls and part of the ceiling. I'm working in the corner where the generator will be installed, and I'm amazed at how well the sound seems to be vanishing from just having that small area installed. It's no longer necessary to wear ear plugs while working in the hull. The only drawback is that the engine room is starting to get hot from the heat from the lights.

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造


 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-27 23:33:32 | 显示全部楼层
The perforated aluminum looks fantastic and gives me just the gear head look I want for my engine room. Once the material is screwed to the wall, it stiffens up nicely. You have to look closely to see the rock wool underneath, so I feel good about the ability of the perforations to contain the rock wool while also letting the sound waves into the dampening zone. The open area of the perforated sheathing is 34%. I picked up some advice from the good posters at Metalboatbuilding.org on how the cut the stuff. It's so nice to be able to start seeing some finishing material finally going on.
Because the rock wool is 1" thick I'm going to have to fabricate some corner pieces or trim some areas out with aluminum angle. One of these areas is by the doors as you can see from this picture. I'm lea

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

ning towards angle in some areas, while in other areas, I'm going to try to brake ( bend a corner) the material in to an outside or inside corner.
I took a crack at bending some material into a corner, and it worked out OK. Having corner pieces makes the job look much more finished and I don't have to be as part

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

icular on the fit.

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

I had to add firing strips to the main area of the engine room ceiling. While I hate to loose another 3/4" of head room, I'm willing to take the trade as this allows my rock wool to go up with less waste. The frames for the boat are 30" on center, and my rock wool sheets are 24" x 48". I don't have the choice of 3' x 5' sheets so I added the firing strip to make things work better and get the most bang for my buck in regard to how much rock wool I have to buy.

 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-27 23:34:51 | 显示全部楼层
I started out cutting the perforated aluminum with snips, but I've now switched over to my table saw. I added a board to the saws' fence so the 16 gauge material will not slide under the fence. The table saw does an excellent job of cutting the material and it looks like it was done on a shear.
You might have noticed I have some plywood installed under the rock wool. I have plywood over the fuel tanks to protect the paint job on the tank and also to give me a way to easily attach engine room components to the tanks. I plan for some cabinetry and shelving, among other things, to be installed on top of the tanks. The forward and aft water tight bulkheads also received 1/2" plywood. I installed plywood on the aft bulkhead due to the idea that my generator will sit on the starboard side, and my fuel transfer/polish manifolds and pumps will be on the port side. I don't know the exact layout of any of these components, so I put the plywood up to make it easier to attach the various bits and pieces of each system. I went with plywood on the forward bulkhead as this is the area where my work bench will be, and I want don't want to be limited to the bulkhead framing as the only points of attachment for various things.
I cut it a little close on my measure

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

ments for my fuel tank fill points. I wanted the fill lines to be as close to the outside hull sides as possible, and as you can see I achieved that. I had to hog out a bit of the rock wool, then push the aluminum in to get the two inch nipple to thread in. The rest of the assembly will fit just fine as the hull is leaning outboard at this area of the boat.
I'm pretty happy how the material bends and the fact that I'm a

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

ble to fabricate some of the corner pieces I need. This picture is where the ceiling jumps up to accommodate my door. This detail is the same on both the forward and aft sections of the engine room. This detail also gives me three more inches of headroom over my work bench.

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

The room is about 70% complete in regard to fitting out the aluminum wall and ceiling sheathing, and 100% finished regarding the sole, so I decide to drop in the generator. The engine room is now completely closed off. I'm going to miss that large opening as it was easy to drop material into the space, and it also made things nice in regard to ventilation.
The engine room, for the most part, is sheathed. I still have to cover the seams with some trim, but I've yet to find a source or figured out what the trim will look like. I'm thinking I"ll go with a 1" piece with some sort of slight brake on both edges.

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造


 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-27 23:37:22 | 显示全部楼层
Engine room sole
The engine room sole is sheathed with 1/4" aluminum diamond plate.
I was planning on using plywood for the sole due to cost concerns on my part, but having found this plate at the scrap yard has allowed me to go with, what I consider, a more attractive sole. Because of being in the engine room, and a

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

lso I believe it could be a common event to have to lift pieces of the sole off for maintenance I bolted wood firing to my steel framing and then attach the aluminum sheathing to the wood. If I had screwed the aluminum sheathing directly to the steel I had visions in the not to distant future of broken screws, corrosion where screws penetrated the steel, and just more difficult maintenance in general. Having wood to screw the aluminum in to will also give me a little vibration dampening in my opinion. I'm using #12 x 1.50" stainless steel wood screws that I'm countersinking as my fastener. The sole is complete as I write this post, and to date, I've used 150 of the stainless screws to fasten the aluminum down.

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

I wanted as much level area in the engine room as I could build, so I stepped the sole framing up as the sole moves aft in the engine room. These steps, while some might not like, give me places of access underneath the sole, and also give me a place to sit while I'm in the engine room. Whenever I give friends tours of the progress, almost everyone sits on one of these steps. This picture to the left shows the platform I built for my tool box, and my hydraulic system reservoir.
I think the largest piece of material I've used for the engine room sole is a finished cut piece of 24"x 24". I don't want to be having to man handle large pieces when I'm I have to access under the sole. I would rather be able to lift smaller pieces, to gain access and still be kneeling or sitting on the level sole. The down side to having all these smaller pieces is I used quite a few screws.
I'm getting a pretty good feel on how the engine room is going to layout and I think I've found locations for the various equipment I'm going to need

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

. I'm going to dedicate the port side of the room up against the main bulkhead at frame #9 as my area for my work bench. While the head room is around 5"4" in this area, I'll be able to use a short stool with a lower work bench to be able to work in a comfortable position. I'll post more about the engine room as a whole once I begin to install the various components.
The last piece of the sole for me to build is the area over the stuffing box. I'm almost out of aluminum plate so I have to give it some thought on how I want to treat this area so I don't waste any material. I think I'm going to hinge a part of this area so I can gain quick access to the stuffing box for maintenance, daily checks for leaks, and stuffing box temperature.
I have 4' 10" of head room on the starboard side of the engine, and 5' 2" on the port side of the engine. I have more headroom on the port side by my design as I knew this area would house my work bench. I'd love to have a stand up engine room, but on a boat my size, I think that would be almost impossible. I think once you get into the 50' range, stand up engine rooms start to appear. I'm totally happy with the size of the engine room, and very pleased with the head room I do have. I'll be able to easily do all my maintenance work in this space in comfort.
The scrap yard aluminum worked out great. There are some blemishes, and some cleaning that will have to be done. I know as construction progresses, the dings I put in the sole, will blend in to what was there. I'll probably never do much more than clean up the mess's I make. I have to say that I love the way the engine room is shaping up.

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造


 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-27 23:39:49 | 显示全部楼层
Work Bench

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

I'm kind of in need of a quick easy project ( if there is such a thing on a yacht build), so I decided to build a work bench for the engine room. I have quite a few engine room projects coming up and I want to be able to sit comfortably while I get things done. I'm also getting tired of having tools and parts scattered everywhere, so I'm also contemplating some cabinets and a tool box in the not to distant future.
I don't have any decent plywood laying around the shop, but I do have about 1600 board feet of rough sawn Cherry that's been air drying for the last three ye

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

ars. It's a bit more work to have to joint boards and edge glue them together vs sawing some plywood, but I don't mind. If I can save myself $50.00 for the cost of a sheet of plywood and a trip to the supply house, I'm happy to use some of the rough sawn lumber I have.
It's been a while since I've messed in wood so I had to go over the jointer and make sure it was tuned up. I only had to make a slight adjustment to get the two beds parallel, but other than that, all looked good. After I planed some stock to 3/4", I ran the stock through the table saw a few times to straighten it out a bit. I cut the stock a few inches long, then I ran it all through the jointer to finish the edge. Using a biscuit joiner with #2 biscuits to reinforce the joints, I glued up the panel.
After the glue had cured, I flattened the panel with my air sander using 80 grit paper. My next step was to go over the panel with a DA sander a few times, finishing up with 220 grit. I rounded over the outside edge of the pane

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

l, and applied a fiddle to the starboard side. I put a fiddle on this edge since anything that can roll this direction has a good chance of landing in the bilge underneath the engine. Retrieving things from this area would be a pain so I'm trying to head things off with the fiddle.
I'm putting a satin finish on the work bench just to help it stay a little clean. I've never had a finish on a work bench as most of my work benches are steel. I want a wood surface on the boat so I'm not limited as to what I can do at the bench. Steel benches and wood working tools don't mix so well, so wood makes the most sense.
Installing the bench against #9 bulkhead was about as straight forward as one can get. I did have to mess around with the height of my stool/bench combination. The height of the bench came to 33", and the height of the stool will be 23". This is a comfortable height and allows me to sit upright while not hitting my my head on frame #10. I screwed cleats to the fuel tank and #9 bulkhead to support the bench and also fabricated a leg out of stainless steel tube. If the need arises, the bench will be very easy to remove and replace.
I bought a 5" vise to install on the bench, but after sitting the vice on the bench I was not happy with it. The vice dominated the bench, and just plain took up too much room. A smaller vice would not be the answer, as I h

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

ate being limited by having too small a vice for such an important tool. A vice is one of my most used tools in my shop, and I want one on my boat. I compromised with myself, and found another location. Aft of the bench where the sole steps up will actually become a good location for the vice. I can sit comfortably on the step and work at the vice. I'm not as limited to the size of work as I would have been in the work bench corner. I can also remove the sole on the step below the vice and pick up another 10" of depth if need be. I"ll have to remove the sole around the vice, reinforce things, then re install a dedicated piece of sole that the vice bolts through. By doing this, I can leave the vice bolted in place and remove pieces of sole to a gain access under the sole for maintenance and future work.
Even though the bench is not as large as I'm used too,

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

it's going to be nice having a work bench on my boat.

 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-27 23:40:55 | 显示全部楼层
Sea Chest Complete

拖网渔船建造

拖网渔船建造

I finished the sea chest, and installed it.
I've been hunting for a used sea strainer, and finally found one on Ebay. The dude I bought if from had purchased it for his boat then had a change of mind. The strainer is in new condition having never seen the water.
I welded a leg on to the manifold that I will screw on to the fixed panel that covers part of the fuel tank. I'll be able to access the fuel tank clean out without having to take the sea chest apart as the panel I'm using as a brace is adjacent to the access panel.
The final elevation of the top of the "T" is 1" below the water line ( DWL). You can see a line drawn on the fuel tank inspection cover that represents the DWL. I"ll have to extend a nipple up above the DWL, and put a cap on it. Maybe I'm not seeing something in my approach to using a T vs a 90, but I like being able to peek down into the "T" just to see what I can see. I also used a coupling on the end of the manifold that will have a plug in it, so I easily be able to expand my sea chest by adding on to the coupling/manifold. I can also expand the sea chest via the T, but I'd have to go with a self priming device due to elevation concerns.
I think I'm going to remove the plastic bowl on the sea chest and stash it away while I do more fitting out in the engine room. I also have to cut away the piece of angle under the third valve as it is no longer needed and is sort of in the way of the last valve. I think I'll extend the sole under the sea strainer now that I know what the final elevation is going to be. As you can see from the picture, I have enough room to put the valve handles behind the sea chest. Having the handles in the rear is really dumb luck on my part, but nice in that the handles are out of the way and won't snag one as they move past the sea chest.
Now that the sea chest is complete, I can finalize the generator connections.
I like having all my thru hull fittings in one location that is easy to get to. Every time I enter the engine room, it will be impossible not to look at the condition of the sea chest.

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