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[技术] 水作为燃料的电解项目

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发表于 2010-8-20 10:18:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
我决定做一些水的电解试验。 我读了一些关于水燃料电解方面的论文。 并研究了一些理论,并认为这是足以令人兴奋的尝试。 我想制作一些更为合理的设计。 我坚信水可以很容易地转化为燃料,而不需要任何储存气体的危险。 如果能够实现这一目标,我们将有可能实现能源紧张的问题。 麻烦的是找到正确的方法。


I decided to do some experimentation with electrolysis. I read a number of papers on the subject. I studied some theories and felt that it was exciting enough to try some work myself. I wanted to create a tight and compact design. Something that would be very efficient and at the same time, easy on space.
It is my firm belief that a solution exists whereby water can be readily converted to fuel without the need to store any of the dangerous gasses. If this could be achieved, we would have a limitless supply of power to use in every application requiring a motor or engine. The trouble is finding the proper method for getting more fuel out than energy in to create that fuel. -Yes again, Over Unity. -But you know me, I am positive that it exists, we just have to find it.
The first thing that I wanted to do was simply create some Hydrogen and Oxygen. So the easiest thing I could think of was to grab whatever was around me. I had some old batteries, from which I removed the carbon rods. I had an 2 liter bottle, and I had some goop glue.
I drilled the 2 holes, inserted the rods and glued everything inside and out. I used a long skinny wooden dowel to glob the glue on the inside surface around the rods. Then I soldered my wires on, although I couldn't get the solder to stick to the carbon very well.
I let things set for a day and tried it the next day. I used normal tap water, and it worked! Not very well, but it worked. I decided to try salt water and it worked better -OK so some day when I'm bored, I decided I would do a little experiment. I am going to buy some toy rocket igniters (electric ones) and tape one to a balloon. Then put the balloon over the top of this thing and set it out in the back yard far from anything. I will run very long wires to my igniter and then let this thing run for several hours until I have a balloon of the size I want. Then a simple touch of the wires to the battery and... you can figure out the rest.
Be sure you don't let it get too large unless you are prepared to deal with the c**equences of police coming! I generally want to test how large a "storage area" could be, before it would be what I c**ider dangerous. I will take my information and put it to use in my next design. -I have yet to do the explosion tests but I will someday soon, and I will take pictures so that all of you can enjoy the experience with me!


These are 8 strips of stainless steel. I believe it was 304 grade. They are 1.5 x 24 inches and rather thin. I would guess around a 32nd of an inch. I also had 4 smaller strips cut for a TEST device. The smaller ones are .5 x 16 inches and of the same thickness. If you do the math, the total surface area of the small ones is 64 square inches (.5 x 16 x 8). The larger set will be 576 square inches (1.5 x 24 x 16). The smaller TEST device will therefore be 9 times smaller than the larger prototype when finished.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-20 10:18:58 | 显示全部楼层

I used a heated Utility Knife to push a slit in the bottom of the PVC cap, then I inserted the first strip to keep that slit open. I followed the same method for the other 3 strips until all 4 were inserted into the cap. I left about 1/2 of an inch sticking out the bottom, so that I could attach my wires.
In retrospect, I would recommend drilling small holes in the end so that you could more easily attach the wires to the stainless steel. It does not solder well at all. I filing slits into mine which was a lot of extra work.


The key is to get all of the pieces in line with each other. After inserted, I gently bent each one as required so that all 4 pieces were lined up as perfectly as I could get them. A nice trick that I figured out was using some tiny NiB magnets that I have, to hold the opposite end apart, the required distance. I used 5 magnets total to hold the 4 strips. 1 magnet for each end, and 1 between each of the metal strips, so 5 total. This is perfect for determining where you have a bent strip. It takes a while to get everything perfectly straight.
Do not bother doing it before you insert into the cap, because once inserted, they get out of alignment anyway and you need to do this alignment all over again. So after they are all aligned, slide your magnet holders up toward the cap a bit. Leave yourself about 2 full inches of free metal strips at the top (the end opposite the cap). Heat up some wax in a spoon and get someone to help you here. You will hold the spoon and heat the wax with in it, then dip the top of your strips in the wax.
You can probably do this alone if you repeatedly dip the top in the wax to gradually form the plug, but I simply dipped it in and held it there (blowing on the wax) until it was hard. Use a razor to cut it out of the spoon. You now have a small wax plug separating your 4 strips. Form the wax with your fingers to clean it up and then remove your magnets.
You should now have 4 strips perfectly aligned and ready for the next step.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-20 10:19:10 | 显示全部楼层

The next step is to put it together. You need to use a narrow nose "Goop Glue" container to squirt some glue down inside the cap to hold the stainless steel strips and make them water tight, then quickly slide your pvc pipe down the strips and push it firmly into the cap. Do this neatly since you will never get it apart again.
Your PVC should only be a few inches longer than the metal strips. Mine is about 4 inches longer than the strips. Let everything dry overnight.


The next day you can get a PVC T joint to hold everything up. The T join must fit your CAP and not the PVC tube that you bought. So it will be a size or two larger than your tube. I had to sand a nub on my cap so that it fit the T joint properly. Then 1 layer of masking tape on the cap and I was set.
Solder your wires on and be sure that none of them are touching each other. Look back a few pictures to see better shots of my solder job on the wires. Again, holes drilled in the strips will probably prove to work nicely.
Once you have done the soldering, carefully feed your wires out the middle part of the T joint and you can now stand it all up.
I don't know if the idea for my design came from any 1 source, it was rather a collection of ideas that I brought together. I like the nice slender look and you could stack these side by side in a vehicle or anywhere for that matter.
I labeled my wires 1, 2, 3, 4 so that I didn't get anything mixed up. Again check that you have NO continuity between any of the wire leads. Once you are sure that you have no shorts, go ahead and fill your cell with normal tap water, so you don't ruin your strips. Connect wires 1 & 3 together and then 2 & 4 together. Apply your battery and watch it work!
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-20 10:19:44 | 显示全部楼层

You will likely push out a bit of water so that is why I wrap the cell with a sock. Once the bubbles reach maximum the water stops overflowing. It was at this point that I started to wonder how loud the bubbles would be if I popped them with a torch off of the top.
I was getting some bubbles about 1/2 the size of a ping-pong ball. So I lit a torch and BANGGGGGGGGG! WOW! -That hurt my ears! This stuff is pretty powerful! I definitely see how you could drive an engine with it. I played a bit and then I decided to make a torch.
This is probably not a safe thing to do, as you are gathering up more of the gas. But I had to try it. The top of the cell is where I mounted my mini-torch. Yes my father takes embril injecti** to help his arthritis so I have a few of these that I saved for something... I just knew I would find a use for them. I cut off the point of the needle and then filed it to ensure that it was open. I removed the plunger and inserted a rubber tube which fit so perfectly it surprised me. I had to wet the tube to push it in. I inserted it the entire way up to the top.
I drilled a hole in the top cap and inserted a brass threaded nipple, onto which I pushed my rubber tube. Now as I said, I do not recommend doing this because you are messing with an explosive and GLASS!!! If it exploded, you would have some very nasty glass shards flying right at you! Also, you are storing up about the volume of 2 full ping-pong balls here!!!
Remember how loud the bubbles were? -They were just about 1/2 of a ping-pong ball. So again I do NOT recommend trying this with the glass. I am going to try to find some very small metal tubing to use instead, but I tried this for just a test.
I need to get some pictures of this as it is really cool. The little torch is so tiny it is amazing. But damn is it hot!!! I played around with it for quite some time, lighting my propane torch from it and all sorts of things.
One time, I don't know what I did but I somehow got the flame to blow out (or so I thought) next thing I realized was that needle was cherry red at the tip. It was never red before ...not ever. Not only that but the RED was moving down the needle at an alarming rate!!!! Oh my god! I believe the flame was inside and moving down toward the larger body of gas only 1.5 inches below!
I yanked off the top cap so fast... my heart was pounding very hard. I believe I missed the flying glass scenario by 1 second if not less! -I never tried the syringe again! I may fire it up once more just for a picture but that will be it. -Gotta find some very small metal tubes that I can attach my plastic tubing to.
One more thing, you will get a rusty looking froth on the top. I don't know how to stop this, but I heard that if you spoon it off, and keep the same water, it will decrease and possibly stop. Maybe it is just the junk working its way out of the water? -Ideas on this would be appreciated.
I plan on doing a lot more work in this area. I want to experiment with a lot of other ideas I have. I also want to build the larger cell, with 9 times the surface area of this little one. I bet that guy would sustain a very nice flame! More will be coming here soon. A lot more, I can assure you.


Hello, I decided to update this project with some text today. Sorry for the delay! The pics were here but nothing to tell you what you were seeing.
This picture is simply a snapshot of the cell generating some "Brown's Gas" (hydrogen and oxygen mixed together). It is a very volitile mix so one must exercise extreme caution when trying to store it... if you dare!
This bubble is the exact size that I was describing above. I was igniting these with my torch and it was very loud! I would hate to see how powerful a bubble the size of a baseball would be


OK I said that I might fire up the "Syringe Torch" one more time (no pun intended), just to get you guys some pics. Well, here she is folks! This is is the little flame that I spoke of... happily burning away at the tip of the needle. If you look carefully, it is right in the corner of my 2 carpenter squares hanging on the wall. It almost looks like a reflection from the flash, but it is a genuine flame, burning right off of the hydrogen as I am producing it with this little cell.
For some interesting information, this cell is only about 123 cubic inches and it is able to produce a steady flame, yes a small flame, but steady none-the-less. One cubic foot, takes up 1728 cubic inches, so you could fit about 14 of these little generators in 1 cubic foot of space. I should think that could produce a fairly nice flame... don't you?
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-20 10:19:58 | 显示全部楼层

Here I am using the torch to re-light a spent match. The flame is super hot for the tiny size.


Here was an attempt at taking a picture of the flame alone with the lights out. You can see it burning right under the flourescent lights in the background. Sorry for my crappy camera guys.


Another shot of the flame in the dark. In the center of the pic, you see 2 spots of light. The lower of those two spots, is the flame burning.


Here I was trying to capture the amperage. It is drawing about 3.012 Amps at 12 volts (36 watts total) so I am not very happy with the effeciency of the little guy. This is normal "Tap Water" by the way.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-20 10:20:13 | 显示全部楼层

Here I was trying to show the flame by my hand, just so you could have some size reference. I might caution you from trying this at home. Looking through a camera while trying to use one's hand as a backdrop for a hydrogen flame is a rather dangerous item of business. I did not burn myself, but if you were not careful you could seriously burn yourself on one of these flames. They are hotter than any flame that I have ever seen before (for their size).


Another shot of the hand trick The flame is the upper spot of light right in the center of my palm. Very hard to see I might add.


Thanks to my inside contace (she's a nurse) I was able to procure some new hypodermics. These are great to try because they have no glass and the needles are a bit larger in bore size. By the way, I have since removed the glass syringe and do not ever hope to fire it up again. These needles come with a built in plastic middle. Amazingly it matches my tubing exactly. I think I am using 3/8 inch tubing. So now I can play without fear of flying glass. Flying needles are much less dangerous right? *grin*
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-20 10:20:51 | 显示全部楼层

Here is a very bad pic of the setup with the new torch end. I ran wires to the tip of the needle for use with my little pezio ignitor from an old lighter. The ignitor makes a tiny spark which should be sufficient to ignite the gas on the end of the needle.
I also use some sandpaper to grind down the tip of the needle to a flat end, rather than a point.


Here is a better pic of the setup ...still a bad shot I know! My camera **s


Here I had my wife take a picture while I was furiously clicking the ignitor. The electricity was turned off so no gas was being produced. I just thought it would be cool to capture a pic of the little spark. Guess it worked, cause you can see it here. Probably more of a result of the camera's slow shutter speed, rather than my wife being lucky enough to click it right as the spark was jumping
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-20 10:21:11 | 显示全部楼层

Here you can see a better spark I am not sure if the last pic was actually a spark but this definitely is showing one.


Another shot of the sparking. Now let's turn on the gas for this thing! wooohoo -Grab my safety goggles honey!


We have ignition!


Wow that flame is much larger than before! The larger bore needle is delivering a lot more gas. Please excuse the green flame. It is really an orange to clear flame. My crappy camera just can't tell the truth I guess.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-20 10:21:33 | 显示全部楼层

Another shot of the beautiful little flame. This is exciting! It really makes me want to build the larger version of this cell. The one with 8 pieces of 1.5 x 24 stainless steel.


OK time for some fun. Oh by the way, I purchased some distilled water and some "Red Devil" drain cleaner. The drain cleaner is 100% lye so it is (sodium hydroxide --I think). Whatever it is, I was told that it was the perfect thing to use as an electrolyte in distilled water.
It appears to be good information. I get little to no yellow slag on the top of the water. I used to get a ton of it with normal tap water. I also see a huge increase in the amperage draw but an equally huge increase in the volume of gas.


Ready... set...


BURN!!!!


He-he ...he-he ...fire! Fire! (in a Bevis voice)
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-20 10:21:58 | 显示全部楼层

One last shot of that beautiful little flame. The spark ignition works like a dream.


Here is a pic of the Amp draw. Around 11 - 12 amps Ouch! I guess I'm going to have to start playing with the 42.8 Khz range the Keely refers to. If I find that I can make instant and unlimited amounts of hydrogen from water. I will probably be dead though ...but let's not worry about the little things.
I would seriously want to play with tweaking the output of these cells. I have read that you can not go below 1.24 volts (something to do with the valence of the H2O molecule) but then I read that you can in fact get below this level and still have electrolysis. Also of note, it was implied that once you go below 1.24 volts, you are producing electrolysis in an over unity state? hmmm Maybe we could couple 100 of these together in a large cell and then produce the volume of gas that we require, on demand... no storage needed
My whole point of this was to produce the gas on demand, without storage (the dangerous part). If you can have a fast and effecient production of fuel in a small space, it would be a great thing to build into a vehicle. If you could produce the fuel for a small electrical expense, you could recharge the battery directly from the alternator? -It is my dream at least so let me have it
Also of note, I tried the 20 guage needle and it was too large. The pressure was not sufficient to sustain a flame on top of the needle. The little flame jumped down inside and ignited the inner gas several times. Thankfully, there is only a tiny bit of gas in there, since the water is up to the tippy top! So the thing kind of pops and jumps a little bit. You can see a cool orange/yellow flash in the rubber tube, that looks like a neon sign mis-firing.
Also, with the large needle, I had the flame go inside of the needle and slowly burn down. What do you know! The same thing that took place with the glass syringe. I let it go this time to see if it would pop when it reached inside the entire way and it did just as I thought. POP! -Sure enough ...I now know that I avoided the possibility of flying glass with that old syringe, by a mere second or less. I am glad I did not find out! -The moral of the story ...never use glass to contain explosives -I got lucky... you may not!
Stay tuned as I devise more fun things to do with my initial work here in this area. This is the most amazing stuff to me. Burning water!


This is a picture of my new elecrolysis box and the glue that I used. It is able to actually weld the plexi-glass together, by melting the material. Very cool, very instant, very dangerous, so be careful if you use it.
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