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发表于 2010-8-12 07:01:32 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
COLD FUSION BY PLASMA ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER
Ph.M. Kanarev
The Kuban State Agrarian University,Department of Theoretical Mechanics
13, Kalinin Street, 350044Krasnodar,
Russia

Tadahiko Mizuno
Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,
Kita-ku, North 13, West-8 Sapporo060-8628,
Japan

Abstract: Ithas been disclosed that transmutation of the atomic nuclei of alkaline metalsand the atomic nuclei of the cathode material takes place during plasmaelectrolysis of water.
Key words:atom, nucleus,
proton, neutron,electron, cathode, low-current.
INTRODUCTION
Cold nuclear fusionis the first hypothesis of a source of additional energy in heavy waterelectrolysis. Fleischmann and Pons, the American electrochemists, are theauthors of this hypothesis [1]. They reported about it in 1989. Since that timea large number of experiments has been carried out in order to obtainadditional energy from water [2], [3], [4], [5], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11],[12]. We continue to discuss this problem.
THE FIRST EXPERIMENTAL PART
In order to checkthis hypothesis, the following experiments were performed. Two cathodes weremade of iron with mass of 18.10 g and 18.15 g. The first cathode operatedduring 10 hours in KOH solution; the second cathode operated during the sameperiod in NaOH solution. Mass of the first cathode remained unchanged, mass ofthe second one was reduced by 0.02 g. The tension by
plasmaelectrolysis process was 220 V and the current
(0.5-1.0) A
(Fig.1). The indices of the consumption of the solutionand the gases being generated were as follows (Table 1).


image002.gif
Fig. 1. Diagram of gas
generator.
Patent
Nr. 2210630:
7-catode;
11-anode
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 07:02:08 | 显示全部楼层
Experimental results


  Indices
  
  
Water  consumption, kg
  
  
Volume  of gases,
  
image004.jpg
  
  
Energy  expenses, image006.jpg
  
  KOH
  
  0.272
  
  8.75
  
  0.28
  
  NaOH
  
  0.445
  
  12.66
  
  0.21
  

It is known that from one litre ofwater it is possible to produce 1220 litres of hydrogen and 622 litres ofoxygen. Quantity of the gases generated by the plasma electrolytic process ismuch greater than it is possible to get from consumed water (Table 1) [6]. Itgives the reason to think that not only water molecules, but the nuclei ofalkaline metals and the atomic nuclei of the cathode material serve as a sourceof these gases. The analysing experiment has been performed in order to checkthis fact.
Tadahiko Mizuno, the famous Japanesescientists (the co-author of this article), who works at the Division ofQuantum Energy Engineering Research group of Nuclear System Engineering,laboratory of Nuclear Material System, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Kita-ku, North 13, West-8 Sapporo 060-8628, Japan, kindly agreed to performchemical analysis of the cathode samples with the help of the nuclearspectroscopy method (EDX). Here are the results of his analysis. The content ofchemical elements on the surface of non-operating cathode is as follows (Table2).


Table 2

Chemical composition of the cathode surface prior its operation in the solution


  
Element
  
  
Fe
  
  
%
  
  
99.90
  

The new chemical elements haveappeared on the working surface of the cathode, which works in KOH solution(Table 3).


Table 3

Chemical composition of the surface of the cathode, which operates in KOHsolution


  Element
  
  Si
  
  K
  
  Cr
  
  Fe
  
  Cu
  
  %
  
  0.94
  
  4.50
  
  1.90
  
  93.00
  
  0.45
  

The chemicalcomposition of the surface of the cathode, which operates in NaOH. Has provedto be different (Table 4).


Table 4


Chemical composition of the surface of the cathode, which operates in NaOHsolution


  
Element
  
  
Al
  
  
Si
  
  
Cl
  
  
K
  
  
Ca
  
  
Cr
  
  
Fe
  
  
Cu
  
  
%
  
  
1.10
  
  
0.55
  
  
0.20
  
  
0.60
  
  
0.40
  
  
1.60
  
  
94.00
  
  
0.65
  


Thus, the hypothesisconcerning the participation of the nuclei of alkaline metals and the atomicnuclei of the cathode material in the formation of gases during plasmaelectrolysis of water has experimental confirmation. Let us carry out thepreliminary analysis of the data being obtained (Tables 2, 3, 4).
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 07:02:57 | 显示全部楼层
THE FIRST
THEORETICAL PART

In any of these cases, the atoms and themolecules of hydrogen are formed. The part of its are burned and the other goout with the steam.
We have alreadyshown that the processes of fusion of the atoms and the molecules of hydrogenand its isotopes result in occurrence
of additional thermal energy [6].
Numerous experiments show thatup to 50% of additional thermal energy are generated during the plasmaelectrolysis of water, it is less than the results of the calculationsoriginating from the existingcold fusion theories [6]. That’s why it is necessary to analyse energetics of theparticle creation process during the atomic nucleus transmutation.
Having considered the model of theelectron we have found out that it can exist in a free state only when it has adefinite electromagnetic mass [6]. Being combined with the atomic nucleus itemits a part of energy in the form of the photons, and its electromagnetic massis reduced. But stability of its condition does not become worse, because theenergy carried away by the photons is compensated by binding energy of theelectron in the atomic nucleus [6].
If the ambient temperature isincreased, the electron begins to absorb the thermal photons and to pass tohigher energy levels of the atom reducing binding with it. When the electronbecomes free, it interacts with the atom only if the ambient temperature isreduced. As this temperature is reduced, it will emit the photons and sink tolower energy levels [6].
If the electron is in a free statedue to an accidental external influence on the atom and the environment has nophotons, which are necessary for it to restore its mass, it begins to absorbthe ether from the environment and to restore its constants in such a way:mass, charge, magnetic moment, spin and radius of rotation. The electronacquires the stable free state only after it has restored its all constants[6].
Thus, if an interchange of the freestate and binding state with the atom takes place due to the accidentalinfluences on the atom, the electron restores its electromagnetic mass everytime due to absorbing the ether. It means that actually it plays the role of aconverter of the ether energy into the thermal photon energy.
The Japaneseinvestigators Ohmori and Mizuno [4] registered neutron radiation during plasmaelectrolysis of water and reported that not only the nuclear process, but theprocess of the electron capture by the free protons can be the source of thisradiation.
As hydrogen plasma is generatedduring the plasma electrolytic process of water electrolysis, there exists atendency of the capture of the free electrons by them.
It is known that rest mass of theelectron is
, rest mass of the proton is , and rest mass of the neutron is . The difference between the mass of the neutron and the massof the proton is equal to . It is
of the mass of theelectron. Thus, the proton should capture 2.531 electrons in order to becomethe neutron. The question arises at once: what will happen to the remained ofelectron mass
? Thedisturbed balance of masses in this process is explained by modern physics in asimple way: a neutrino is created [6].
As the neutrino has no charge, it isvery difficult to register it. If the neutrino takes the excess mass away orreplenish the lacking one, can the elementary particles execute this process bythemselves?
As the photons are emitted andabsorbed only by the electrons, the proton, which absorbs the electrons, cannotconvert the remainder of mass of the third electron into the photon. If theelectron is absorbed by the third one and gives more than a half of its mass tothe proton in order to convert it into the neutron, the remaining part of mass
of the electron,which has no possibility to become the photon, is converted into a portion ofthe ether, which “is dissolved” and mixed with the ether in the space. The factthat plasma has no photons with the mass corresponding to the part of mass ofthe third electron, which has not been absorbed by the proton during itsconversion into the neutron, can serve as a proof of such affirmation. Let uscalculate energy of such photon [6].
The difference the mass of theneutron and the proton is equal to
. Ifwe subtract this value from the mass of three electrons, we’ll get mass , from which the photon should be formed [6]




(1)

If the photon is formed from thisremainder of mass , its energy will be [6]:




(2)



This value of energy corresponds toroentgen spectrum, that’s why the creation of each free neutron should beaccompanied by the creation of one roentgen photon. If it does not take place,we have two opportunities: the first one – we should think that in the casewhen the neutron is created, the neutrino was formed from mass
and flew away in theunknown direction; the second one – there were no conditions for the formationof the photons in the process being considered, and mass , which failed to be formed as a particle, “was dissolved” inthe ether. Which variant is closer to the truth [6] ?
There is no exact answer, but it is known that the Japanesescientists registered only neutron radiation with intensity of 50,000 neutronsper second, and they failed to register roentgen radiation [4].
If in this process the roentgenphotons were created, they would not exceed heat efficacy of the plasmaelectrolytic process, because they would not be the thermal photons. The thermalphotons are radiated and absorbed when the electrons make the energytransitions to the energy levels, which are the most remote from the atomicnuclei, where the infrared photons and neighbouring ones from the optical rangeof the spectrum with energies of »(0.001-3.3) eV are generated [6].
Thus, the neutron fusion processesin plasma electrolysis of water will not generate additional thermal energy.But the appearance of the neutrons in plasma will promote the formation of thenuclei of deuterium and, possibly, of tritium. As the balance of masses remainsalmost unchanged, we have no reason to expect that additional energy will takeplace when deuterium and tritium are formed. But it is sure to appear duringfusion of the atoms of deuterium and tritium, i.e. the hydrogen atoms [6].
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 07:03:11 | 显示全部楼层
In order to become a proton, theneutron should radiate something, which mass is . Let us convert this mass into energy [6].


(3)



This energy corresponds to the gammarange photons, i.e. not to the thermal photons, and this process does not giveadditional energy. Thus, if the process of the formation of the helium atomstakes place during plasma electrolysis of water, it should be accompanied bygamma radiation. If there is no such radiation, but the helium atoms areformed, the neutrino takes away the above-mentioned portion of mass
or this mass, whichhas no opportunity to be formed as the photon, “is dissolved” in theenvironment, i.e. it is transferred into the state of the ether [6]. As theroentgen photons and the gamma photons are not the thermal ones, this processgives no excessive thermal energy [6].
Another variant is possible. Whenthe atoms of alkali metal bombard the cathode atoms, they are destroyedcompletely and destroy the atoms of the cathode materials. Under the notion“completely” we’ll understand such state when both the atom and the nucleus aredestroyed. In this case, the protons of the destroyed nuclei begin to form thehydrogen atoms. The process of fusion of the atoms and the molecules ofhydrogen generate additional thermal energy [6].
But one should bear in mind that ifplasma disintegrates water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen
and if these gases contact plasma, hydrogenis combined with oxygen, and water is formed. Noise generated by plasma ishydrogen microexplosions. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned factthe larger the volume of hydrogen burnt in plasma, the smaller its volume inthe gas-vapour mixture. It means that such reactor operation modes are requiredwhen quantity of burnt hydrogen is minimal one.
Our theory allow us to have such results.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 07:03:36 | 显示全部楼层
As iron is thecathode material, the nuclei of its atoms are the targets of the atomic nucleiof potassium, alkaline metal. During the transmutation of the iron nuclei (Fig.2, b), the atomic nuclei of chromium (Fig. 2 a) and the atomic nuclei of copper(Fig. 2, c) are formed [6].




a)
Cr (24,28)
b)
Fe (26,28)

c)Cu (29,34)


Fig. 2. Diagrams of the atomic nuclei of: a) chromium,b) iron, c) copper
When the atomic nucleus of iron (Fig. 2, b) pass into the atomic nucleusof chromium (Fig. 2, a), two protons and two neutrons are released; two atomsof deuterium or one atom of helium can be formed from them. If the neutronspass into the protons, four atoms of hydrogen are formed.
It is easy to see (Fig. 2) that the atomic nucleus of iron (Fig. 2, b)should lose two upper protons and two neutrons in order to pass into the atomicnucleus of chromium (Fig. 2, a).
Three additional protons and six neutrons (total 9 nucleons) arerequired for the formation of the atomic nucleus of copper (Fig. 2, c) from theatomic nucleus of iron. As there are chromium atoms, which, as we think, areformed from the atomic nuclei of iron, on the cathode surface (Table 3) 4foldthan the atoms of copper, the solution is sure to have superfluous protons andneutrons of the destroyed atomic nuclei of iron, and we can determined theirapproximate relative quantity.
Let us suppose that four nuclei of the iron atoms pass into the nucleiof the chromium atom. The total quantity of free protons and neutrons(nucleons) is equal to 16. As one atom of copper falls on each four atoms ofchromium, 9 nucleons are spent for the formation of one nucleus of the copperatom, and 7 nucleons remain free.
Let us see what is formed when the nucleus of the potassium atom isdestroyed. Potassium is situated in the first group of the fourth period of theperiodic law. Its nucleus contains 19 protons and 20 neutrons (Fig. 3, a) [6].




a) K (19,20)
b) O (8,8)
c) Si (14,14)




Fig. 3. Diagrams of the atomic nuclei of: a)potassium, b) oxygen, c) silicon




In Fig. 3, a, we can see a weak link of the nucleus of the potassiumatom [6]. It is situated in the middle of its axis neutrons. When thetransmutation of the nuclei of the potassium atoms takes place, the nuclei ofthe oxygen atoms can be formed (Fig. 3, b) as well as its isotopes and thenuclei of the silicon atoms (Fig. 3, c).
The analysis of the structure of the nuclei of the potassium atom (Fig.3, a) shows that its is the most probable source of the nucleus of the siliconatom (Fig. 3, c), which atoms appear on the cathode (Table 3).
It is easy to count that during the destruction of one nucleus of thepotassium atom and the creation of one nucleus of the silicon atom 5 freeprotons and 6 free neutrons, i.e. 11 nucleons, are formed.
Thus, the transmutation of the nuclei of the iron atoms and thepotassium atoms results in the formation of free protons and neutrons. As theprotons cannot exist in free state, the hydrogen atoms are created from them.If the protons are connected with the neutrons after the destruction of thenuclei of the iron atoms and the potassium atoms, the formation of deuterium,tritium and helium is possible.
Let us pay attentionto the main fact – absence of the sodium atoms in the cathode material. It isnatural that the potassium atoms have appeared on the cathode, which operatedin KOH solution (Table 3). Why are no sodium atoms on the cathode, whichoperated in NaOH solution? The answer is as follows: the nuclei of the sodium(Fig. 4,a) atoms are completely destroyed during the plasma electrolyticprocess. The presence of potassium on the surface of the cathode, whichoperated in NaOH solution (Table 4), can be explained by insufficient ablutionof the reactor after the operation with KOH solution.
As free protons andneutrons appear during the destruction of the nucleus of the sodium atom (Fig.4,a), some nuclei of this element begin to form the atomic nuclei of aluminium(Fig. 4, b), chlorine (Fig. 4, c) and calcium (Fig. 5).
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 07:03:57 | 显示全部楼层
But not all freeprotons and neutrons are spent for the construction of the atomic nuclei ofaluminium, chlorine and calcium. A part of them is spent for the hydrogen atomformation.
If we knew the totalquantity of transmutating atomic nuclei of iron, potassium and sodium as wellas the exact composition of the gases generated during the plasma electrolyticprocess, it would be possible to determine the atomic nuclei being formed fromadditional nucleons. Now we can only suppose that the majority of new nucleiare the protons, i.e. the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms. The increased volume ofthe gases generated during the plasma electrolytic process is explained by it[6].




a) Na(11,12)
b) Al(13,14)

c) Cl (17,18)


Fig. 4.Diagrams of the atomic nuclei of: a) sodium, b) aluminium, c) chlorine









Ca (20,20)


Fig. 5.Diagram of the nucleus of the calcium atom

The analysis of theseTables shows that transmutation of the nuclei of iron, of which the cathodesare made, results in the formation of chromium and copper in both cases.Apparently, aluminium, chlorine and calcium are formed from the destroyedsodium nuclei. In any case, free protons and neutrons are formed.
But not all freeprotons and neutrons are spent for the formation of the atomic nuclei ofcopper, aluminium, chlorine and calcium. A part of them is spent for theformation of the hydrogen atoms. In any case, the atoms and the molecules ofhydrogen are formed. The analysis has shown that plasma electrolytic proces**tracts not more than 0.005 kg of alkaline metal from one litre of thesolution. It appears from this that if all neutrons of the atomic nuclei of themolecules of water and alkali metals are transferred into the protons and theatoms and the molecules of hydrogen are formed, the formed volume of gas willbe considerably less than the one registered during the experiment (Table 1). Aquestion arises: where do additional gases come from? In other to get theanswer on this question we made the next experiment.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 07:05:54 | 显示全部楼层
THE SECOND EXPERIMENTAL PART
First of all we takein a count,
that high temperature ofplasma forms the conditions when a set of various processes takes place at thecathode. First of all, water is boiled and evaporated. At the same tome, onepart of water molecules is disintegrated with a release of the atomic hydrogen,another part of the molecules forms the orthohydrogen molecules. A part ofwater molecules is disintegrated completely and is released at the cathodetogether with hydrogen and oxygen. A part of hydrogen is combined with oxygenagain generating microexplosions (noise) and forming water.
During plasmaelectrolysis of water, water vapor, hydrogen and oxygen are releasedsimultaneously. If vapor is condensed, gas mixture is released. In order to measure gas flowrate
the electronic anemometer havebeen used. Diameter of the electronic anemometer was equal to internal diameterof the gas make tube (23, Fig. 1). Its readings were registered and processedby the computer. The experiment was performed dozen time, and each time its readingswere reproduced with small deviations [11]. But we had no hydrogen analyzer,that’s why the results being obtained cannot be considered as final ones. Weadmonished it in all editions of the book Water is a New Source of Energywith such a phrase: “We abstain from lending an official status to theseresults with the hope to get necessary financing and to repeat them with acomplete set of the necessary devices” [12, page 176].
In the middle of theyear of 2002 we received small financing, which allowed us to make a newreactor and to buy some measuring instruments, in particular the scales withthe measurement limit up to 600 g and accuracy of 0.02 g. Careful preparationallowed us to increase duration of continuous operation of the reactor (to 10 andmore hourses) and to register solution consumption for gas production.
The main difficulty ofoperation with the hydrogen is in the fact that its mixture with air (4-74)% oroxygen (4-94)% is combustible, and the fact was emphasized more than once duringthe experiments making the researches be very careful. The second difficultyduring hydrogen quantity measurements generated by the plasma electrolyticreactor is in the fact that its molecule has the smallest dimensions, that’swhy it penetrates easily to the places where the molecules of other substancesdo not penetrate. Molecular hydrogen diffuses easily even into metals. Forexample, one volume of palladium absorbs up to 800 volumes of hydrogen.
Gas flow speed wasmeasured with the help of various anemometers, its readings being registeredwith the help of the computer. Numerous measurements and numerous analysis ofgas flow speed measurement accuracy with the help of the anemometers showedthat error of a conventional anemometer can be
100%.


Fig. 6.Diagram of measurement of flow rate of the gas and its volume: 1 - tap for gasflow movement direction switching, 2 – anemometer, 3 – graduated tank, 4 –water tank


It is known that it ispossible to produce 1220 litres of hydrogen and 622 litres of oxygen from onelitre of water. Quantity of the gases generated by the plasma electrolyticprocess is much greater than it is possible to get from consumed water (Table1). It was a strong reason for a search of the measurement error. For thispurpose, the diagram of measurement of flow rate of the gases and theirquantity was used (Fig. 6).

The results of themeasurements were as follows. The anemometer showed that 200 litres of gasmixture penetrated through it during 10 minutes. Nearly one litre of gases wasin the graduated tank during this period.
Thus, the measurementof gas flow with the help of the anemometers distorted the result 200fold. Itshould be mentioned that the reactor operated in the production mode of hydrogenand oxygen in the cathode zone. As a result, their mixture burst. The pulses ofthese explosions increased the readings of the anemometer.
It has becomenecessary to return to the reactor operation modes when no oxygen is releasedin the cathode zone.
Our theory allowsus to do this easy.

 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 07:06:26 | 显示全部楼层
PROTOCOL
of tests of the first model oflow-current Electrolyzers

It is known that it is possible toproduce 1.22 l of + 0.622
= 1.843 () from 1 ml of

Experimentalresults

  
Indices
  
  
1
  
  
2
  
  
3
  
  
Average
  
  1-duration  of experiment, hour
  
  
1
  
  
1
  
  
1
  
  
1
  
  2-voltage,  V
  
  
70
  
  
70
  
  
70
  
  
70
  
  3-current, A
  
  
0.038
  
  
0.080
  
  
0.098
  
  
0.072
  
  4 – power,  W
  
  
2.7
  
  
5.60
  
  
**4
  
  
4.91
  
  4-volume  of consumed solution, ml
  
  
1.67
  
  
3.98
  
  
4.32
  
  
3.32
  
  5-density  of the solution, kg/l
  
  
1.04
  
  
1.04
  
  
1.04
  
  
1.04
  
  6-volume  of consumed water, ml
  
  
1.60
  
  
3.83
  
  
4.15
  
  
3.19
  
  7-volume  of the gas mixture being produced, l
  
  
2.95
  
  
7.06
  
  
7.85
  
  
5.95
  
  6-volume  of hydrogen being produced, l
  
  
1.95
  
  
4.67
  
  
5.07
  
  
3.80
  
  7-energy  consumption per l of hydrogen, W×h/l
  
  
1.38
  
  
1.20
  
  
1.27
  
  
1.28
  
  8-energy  consumption per m3 of hydrogen, kWh/m3
  
  
1.38
  
  
1.20
  
  
1.27
  
  
1.28
  
  9-existing  energy consumption for production of 1 m3 of hydrogen from water,  kWh/m3
  
  
4.00
  
  
4.00
  
  
4.00
  
  
4.00
  

CONCLUSION
Transmutation of the atomic nuclei of alkaline metals andthe atomic nuclei of the cathode material during plasma electrolysis ofwater
existed.
Plasma electrolytic process opens newprospects in study of matter on the nuclear, atomic and molecular levels.

The low-current electrolysis
allow us to get
the inexpensive hydrogen from water.

REFERENCES

1. M. Fleischmann, S.Pons and M. Hawkins. Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium. J.Electroanal. Chem. 261, 301 (1989),
2. ICCF-7 ACCEPTEDABSTRACTS. Infinite Energy. V. 4, Issue 20, p. 59…69.
3. Harold L. Fox.Cold nuclear fusion: essence, problems, influence on the world. View from USA.Production group SVITAX. M.: 1993,180 pages.
4. T. Ohmori, T. Mizuno. Strong Excess Energy Evolution, NewElement Production, and Electromagnetic Wave and/or Neutron Emission in LightWater Electrolysis with a Tungsten Cathode. Infinite Energy. Issue 20, 1998. Pages 14-17.
5. T. Mizuno. Nuclear Transmutation: The Realityof Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy Press. 1998. 151 pages.
6. Ph. Kanarev. Foundations of Physchemistry of Microworld COLDFUSION BY PLASMA ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER. Krasnodar, 2002. 330 pages.

7. Kenneth R. Shoulders, "Method of andApparatus for Production and
Manipulations of High Density Charge", U.S. Patent 5,054,046,issued Oct 1, 1991.

8. Ken Shoulders & Steve Shoulders,"Observations on the Role of
Charge Clusters in Nuclear Cluster Reactions", J. of New Energy,vol. 1, no 3, pp 111-121, Fall 1996, 7 refs, 22 figs.

9.
Hal Fox, Robert W. Bass, & Shang-Xian Jin,"Plasma-Injected Transmutation", J. of New Energy, vol. 1, no 3, Fall1996, pp 222-230, 23 refs, 4 figs.

10.
Shang-Xian Jin & Hal Fox, "High Density Charge ClusterCollective Ion Accelerator," J. of New Energy, vol. 4, no 2, Fall 1999, pp96-104, 47 refs, 4 figs., 3 tables.

11. Ph.M.Kanarev. Water is theMain Power Carrier of
Future PowerEngineering.
Journal of NewEnergy.
An International
Journal of New Energy
Systems. Vol. 6, No.2. Pag. 101-121.

12. Ph.M.Kanarev. Water is New Source of Energy. The ThirdEdition. Krasnodar
2002.
194p. (In English).
发表于 2011-1-22 22:48:13 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢了!!!!!!!!!!
发表于 2011-4-10 11:55:38 | 显示全部楼层
感谢分享....................
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