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[技术] 低电流法电解水(转)

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发表于 2010-8-12 06:28:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
LOW CURRENT PROCESS OFWATER ELECTROLYSIS
Low voltage process of water electrolysis is known from Faraday’s times.It is widely used in modern industry. Voltage of 1.6-2.3 volts is operationvoltage between the anode and the cathode of the electrolyzer; current strengthis tens and hundreds of amperes. In accordance with Faraday’s law, energyconsumption for production of one cubic meter of hydrogen is nearly 4 kWh
in this case.

The analysis of the water molecule structure (Fig. 1)worked out by us shows the possibility of water electrolysis at minimal currentand even without it. The protons of the hydrogen atoms in water molecules canbe combined with each other and can form clusters. As a result, anorthohydrogen molecule is formed (Fig. 2). A question arises: is it possible toseparate this molecule from such cluster? The results of answers on thisquestion are given in Tables 1, 2 and 3.

  
  
  

  

  

  

  

  

  
Fig. 1. Water molecule diagram:

  
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 are numbers of  the electrons of the oxygen atom; P1, P2 are the hydrogen atom nuclei (the  protons); e1 and e2 are the electron numbers of the hydrogen atoms

  
  
  
  
  
  
Fig. 2. Formation diagram of
orthohydrogen: a) and b) water molecule  diagrams;

  
c) orthohydrogen

   
  

It is known that a gram-atom is equal to atomic massof substance; a grammolecule is equal to molecular mass of substance. Forexample, the grammolecule of hydrogen in the water molecule is equal to twograms; the gram-atom of the oxygen atom is 16 grams. The grammolecule of wateris equal to 18 grams. Hydrogen mass in a water molecule is 2x100/18=11.11%;oxygen mass is 16x100/18=88.89%; this ratio of hydrogen and oxygen is in oneliter of water. It means that 111.11 grams of hydrogen and 888.89 grams ofoxygen are in 1000 grams of water.
One liter of hydrogen weighs 0.09 g; one liter ofoxygen weighs 1.47 g. It means that it is possible to produce 111.11/0.09=1234.44liters of hydrogen and 888.89/1.47=604.69 liters of oxygen from one liter ofwater. It appears from this that one gram of water contains 1.23 liters ofhydrogen. Energy consumption for production of 1000 liters of hydrogen is 4 kWhand for one liter 4 Wh. As it is possible to produce 1.234 liters of hydrogenfrom one gram of water, 1.234x4=4.94 Wh is spent for hydrogen production fromone gram of water now.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 06:30:56 | 显示全部楼层
Instrumentsand equipment used during the experiment



Special experimental low current electrolyzer (Fig.3); voltmeter of the highest accuracy class (accuracy class of 0.2 GOST9711-78); ammeter of the highest accuracy class (accuracy class of 0.2 GOST9711-78)’ electronic scale with scale division value of 0.1 and 0.01 g; stopwatch with scale division value of 0.1 s.





Fig. 3. Low current electrolyzer in theclosed form (in the process of patenting)




Table 1


  
Indices

  
  
Sum

  
  1  - duration of the experiment
t, h
  
  
6.000

  
  2  – readings of voltmeter V, volts
  
  
3.750

  
  3  – ammeter readings I, amperes
  
  
0.020

  
  4  – power P, watts hour (P=VxIxτ/60)
  
  
0.450

  
  5  – continue of experiment without input energy in 6 series, min
  
  
0.000

  
  6  – mass difference, grams
  
  
0.52

  
  7  – mass of evaporated water, grams
  
  
0.01x6=0.06

  
  8  – mass of water converted in hydrogen m, grams
  
  
0.46

  
  9  – specific power P’=P/m, Watt/gram of water
  
  
0.98

  
  10  – existing
specific power P’’,  Watt/gram of water

  
  
4.94

  
  11 – the reducing
power on the production of hydrogen, times K=P’’/P’

  
  
5.04

  
  12–  quantity of released hydrogen, ΔМ  =0.46x1.23x0.09=0.051, grams
  
  
0.051

  
  13  – energy content of hydrogen being obtained
(
Е=0.051х142/3,6)=2.008  Wth
  
  
2.008

  
  14-  energy efficacy of low ampere process of water electrolysis (Eх100/P), %
  
  
446.2

  


Table 2


  
Indices

  
  
Sum

  
  1  - duration of the experiment with input energy in 6 series t, min
  
  
6x30=180.0

  
  2  – readings of voltmeter V, volts
  
  
3.750

  
  3  – ammeter readings I, amperes
  
  
0.022

  
  4  – power P, watts hour (P=VxIxτ/60)
  
  
0.247

  
  5  – continue of experiment without input energy in 6 series, min
  
  
6x30=180.0

  
  6  – mass difference, grams
  
  
0.45

  
  7  – mass of evaporated water, grams
  
  
0.1x6=0.06

  
  8  – mass of water converted in hydrogen m, grams
  
  
0.39

  
  9  – specific power P’=P/m, Watt/gram of water
  
  
0.63

  
  10  – existing
specific power P’’,  Watt/gram of water

  
  
4.94

  
  11 – the reducing
power on the production of hydrogen, times K=P’’/P’

  
  
8.40

  
  12–  quantity of released hydrogen, ΔМ  =0.39x1.23x0.09=0.043, grams
  
  
0.043

  
  13  – energy content of hydrogen being obtained
(
Е=0.043х142/3,6)=1.70  Wth
  
  
1.70

  
  14-  energy efficacy of low ampere process of water electrolysis (Eх100/P), %
  
  
689.0

  


Table 3


  
Indices

  
  
Sum

  
  1  - duration of the experiment with input energy in 6 series t, min
  
  
6x5=30

  
  2  – readings of voltmeter V, volts
  
  
13.60

  
  3  – ammeter readings I, amperes
  
  
0.020

  
  4  – power P, watts hour (P=VxIxτ/60)
  
  
0.136

  
  5  – continue of experiment without input energy in 6 series, min
  
  
6x55=330

  
  6  – mass difference, grams
  
  
0.44

  
  7  – mass of evaporated water, grams
  
  
0.01x6=0.06

  
  8  – mass of water converted in hydrogen m, grams
  
  
0.38

  
  9  – specific power P’=P/m, Watt/gram of water
  
  
0.358

  
  10  – existing
specific power P’’,  Watt/gram of water

  
  
4.94

  
  11 – the reducing
power on the production of hydrogen, times K=P’’/P’

  
  
13.80

  
  12–  quantity of released hydrogen, ΔМ  =0.38x1.23x0.09=0.042, grams
  
  
0.042

  
  13  – energy content of hydrogen being obtained
(
Е=0.042х142/3,6)=1.66  Wth
  
  
1.66

  
  14-  energy efficacy of low ampere process of water electrolysis (Eх100/P), %
  
  
1220.0

  

Note: In Tables 1, 3, the results of the experimentare given when frequency of nearly 500 Hz has been generated in the powersupply, in table 2 – without frequency.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 06:32:11 | 显示全部楼层
First of all, we should note that the anode and thecathode are made of one and the same material: steel. It excludes thepossibility of formation of a galvanic cell. If we analyze Tables 1, 2 and 3,we’ll see the electrolysis process takes place at very low current of 0.02 A;that’s why it has been called low current one. Further, this process consistedof two cycles in some experiments; in one cycle, the electrolyzer is connectedto the power line; in another cycle, it is disconnected (Tables 2, 3).
Gas generation process is manifested by release of thebubbles being formed. The bubbles go on being released after the electrolyzeris disconnected from the supply line (Tables 2 and 3). When the electrolyzer isde-energized, gas release intensity is reduced, but it is not stopped duringmany hours. It is proved by the fact that electrolysis takes place at theexpense of potential difference on the electrodes.
After electrolyzer de-energizing, gas release during along period of time proves the fact that the molecules of oxygen and hydrogenare formed without the electrons emitted by the cathode, i.e. at the expense ofthe electrons of the water molecule itself.
Simplicity and 100% reproducibility of the experimentsbeing described afford ground for the fact that mankind has got a chance toavoid energy famine and environmental crisis.




WATER ELECTRICGENERATOR OF HEAT

We have already shown thatenergy of physical vacuum taken by valence electrons of the molecules aftertheir mechanical destruction and emitted by these electrons within the repeatedfusion of the molecules is the most probable source of additional energygenerated by the ventilation systems and the cavitation ones. It is explainedby the fact that half as much energy is spent for mechanical destruction of themolecules than for thermal destruction of these molecules. Valence electrons ofthe molecules being destroyed mechanically absorb energy from physical vacuumin order to restore their energy indices and emit it during the repeated fusionof these molecules.

As half as much energy is spent for mechanical destruction of themolecules than for thermal one, energy effectiveness index of such processescannot exceed two. But if this hypothesis is correct, there is a possibility toincrease energy effectiveness index of this process considerably when themolecules are destroyed electrodynamically. In this case, there is apossibility to find resonance modes of electrodynamic destruction of the moleculesand to reduce energy consumption for this process considerably. Further fusionof the molecules being destroyed electrodynamically will release requiredquantity of energy, which will exceed considerably the energy being spent.



EXPERIMENTAL PART

Themain task of the experiment was to check the hypothesis:
"Electrodynamicinfluence on the water molecules gives the possibility to reduce energyexpenses on destruction of their chemical bonds significantly; further fusionof these molecules increases considerably the output of additional energy inthe form of heat".

In order to solvethis task, special experiments were carried out connected with electrodynamicdestruction of chemical bonds of water molecules with electric pulses ofvarious frequencies. The diagram of the installation used for experimentalinvestigations is shown in Fig. 4; the photo of the experimental generator ofheat is shown in Fig. 5.





Fig. 4. Diagram of the experimental installation: 1 -reservoir for solution; 2- thermometer; 3- electronic scales; 4 - solution feedduct; 5- rotameter; 6- solution feed regulator; 7-a special thin plasmagenerator is in the process of patenting; 8 - thermometer; 9- heated solutiondischarge.

  
  
  
  

Fig. 5. Photos of heat generator




The results of theexperiments are given in Figs
6-9 andin Tables 4 -5.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 06:35:16 | 显示全部楼层
The oscillogram of voltage pulses is given in Fig.
6; the oscillogram of current pulsesinfluencing the generator of heat in one of the experiments carried out withpulse frequency of nearly 100 Hz is given in Fig. 7. As it is clear from theoscillograms, the pulses of both voltage and current have an exponential formbeing close to the triangular one with a sharp edge and a shallow declination.The design duty factor for these pulses is Z
» 0.039. Mean amplitude of voltage pulses is equal to power supplyvoltage of the pulse generator: 250 V. Thus, a mean component of voltage pulsesbeing brought to the generator of heat is equal to
= 0.039 х 250 =9.75 V. In this experiment, voltmeter readings were 10.0 V.





  

  
Fig. 6.
Oscillogram of power supply voltage pulses at

» 100 Hz
  
  

  
  

  
Fig. 7.
Oscillogram of power supply current pulses at

» 100 Hz
  
  

  






Acurrent pulse oscillogram in this experiment is shown in Fig. 7. Current wasmeasured as voltage drop at a measuring resistor with resistance of
0.1 ohm included into the supply circuit of generatorof heat. As it is clear, mean amplitude of current pulses is 1.3 / 0.1 = 13А, and mean component value is equal to:
= 0.039 х 13 =
0.51 А. During measurements, the ammeter showed current of
0.50 A.

On the basis of the oscillographic measurement data,mean value of electric power has proved to be Р = 9.8х0.51 = 5.0 W.The experiment lasted for 300 seconds. Thus, electric energy of =5.0 х 300 = 1500 J = 1.5 kJ entered the generator ofheat. During this period, it heated 0.55 kg of solution by 12 degrees. Energyvalue of this heat was equal to =4.19х0.55х12=27.65 kJ. Efficiency index ofenergy process was
К
=
Е2 / Е1 = 27.65 / 1.5 = 18.43, or 1843%.
It corresponds (with accuracy of up to 5% being characteristic ofoscillographic check) to energy efficiency index being determined with the helpof the voltmeter and the ammeter (s. Table 4).





Table 4

Experimentalindices of the water electric generator of heat
with electric pulse frequency of nearly 100 Hz


  
Indices
  
  
Mean
  
  1.  Mass of the solution, which has passed through the generator ,
kg.

  
  
0.55
  
  2.  Temperature of solution at the input of the generator
, degrees

  
  
26.00
  
  3.  Temperature of the solution at the output of the generator , degrees
  
  
38.00
  
  4.  Temperature difference of the solution
, degrees

  
  
12.00
  
  5.  Durability of the experiment
, s

  
  
300.00
  
  6.  Reading of voltmeter , V
  
  
10.50
  
  6’.  Reading of oscillograph , V
  
  
9.75
  
  7.  Reading of ammeter , A
  
  
0.50
  
  7’.  Reading of oscillograph , A
  
  
0.51
  
  8.  Electric power consumption,

  
  
1.50
  
  9  – power spent for heating of the solution

  
  
27.65
  
  10 – reactor efficiency index
  
  
18.43
  






In Fig.8, the oscillogram of voltage pulses is given. In Fig. 9, the oscillogram ofcurrent pulses being registered during another experiment with pulse frequencyof nearly 300 Hz is given. According to these oscillograms, the duty factorcalculation has given the result of Z = 0.11. With mean values of amplitudes ofpulses of voltage and current being equal to 250 V and 10.6 A, respectively,the mean components of voltage and current arriving into the generator of heathave been:

= 0,11 х 250 =27.5 V;

= 0.11 х 10.6 =1.17 A. According to the readings of the voltmeter and the ammeter, mean valuesof voltage and current were 25.0 V and 1.25 A in this experiment. In thisconnection, mean value of electric power supplied to the generator of heat was27.5 х 1.17 = 32.18 W according to the data of the oscillographicmeasurements and 25 х 1.25 = 31.25 W according to the data of the pointerindicators. Divergence in this methods of mean power determination did notexceed 5% as well.

The energy efficiency calculation results of the generators of the heatfor both methods of measurement with pulse frequency of nearly 300 Hz are givenin Table 5. They are close in their values as well.




   
  

  
Fig. 8. Oscillogram of supply voltage pulses at » 300 Hz

  
  

  
Fig. 9. Oscillogram of supply current
pulses at
» 300 Hz

 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 06:39:26 | 显示全部楼层

Table 5

Experimentalindices of the water electric generator of heat
with electric pulse frequency of nearly 300 Hz


  
Indices

  
  
Mean

  
  1. Mass of the solution, which has passed through  the generator ,
kg.

  
  
0.41

  
  2. Temperature of solution at the input of the  generator
, degrees

  
  
26.00

  
  3. Temperature of the solution at the output of the  generator , degrees
  
  
76.00

  
  4. Temperature difference of the solution , degrees
  
  
50.00

  
  5. Durability of the experiment
, s

  
  
300.00

  
  6. Reading of voltmeter , V
  
  
25.00

  
  6’. Reading of oscillograph , V
  
  
27.5

  
  7. Reading of ammeter , A
  
  
1.25

  
  7’. Reading of oscillograph , A
  
  
1.17

  
  8. Electric power consumption, , kJ
  
  
9.38

  
  9. Power spent for heating of the solution
, kJ

  
  
85.90

  
  10.  Generator
efficiency index

  
  
9.16

  






PROTOCOL
OF CONTROL TEST


Table 6

Supply voltage and current were measured with the helpof a voltmeter, an ammeter and an oscillograph
(Fig. 10-13)


  Indices
  
  
1

  
  
2

  
  
3

  
  
Mean

  
  1 – mass of the solution, which has passed through  the reactor m,
kg.

  
  0.470
  
  0.432
  
  0.448
  
  0.450
  
  2 – temperature of solution at the input of  the reactor
t1, degrees

  
  22
  
  22
  
  22
  
  22
  
  3 – temperature of the solution at the output  of the reactor t2, degrees
  
  66
  
  66
  
  65
  
  65.67
  
  4 – temperature difference of the solution Dt= t2 - t1, degrees
  
  44
  
  44
  
  43
  
  43.67
  
  5 – durability of the experiment
Dt, s
  
  300
  
  300
  
  300
  
  300
  
  6 – reading of voltmeter V, V
  
  4.50
  
  4.50
  
  4.50
  
  4.50
  
  6’.  Reading of oscillograph , V
  
  4.47
  
  4.47
  
  4.47
  
  4.47
  
  7 – reading of ammeter I, A
  
  2.1
  
  2.1
  
  2.1
  
  2.1
  
  7’.  Reading of oscillograph , A
  
  2.2
  
  2.2
  
  2.2
  
  2.2
  
  8 – electric power consumption according to indices  of voltmeter and ammeters, E2=I×V×Dt, kJ
  
  
2.84

  
  2.84
  
  2.84
  
  2.84
  
  9 – power spent for heating of the solution,  E3=4.19×m×Dt, kJ
  
  79.64
  
  80.01
  
  80.72
  
  80.46
  
  10 – reactor efficiency index K= E3/  E2
  
  28.04
  
  28.17
  
  28.42
  
  28.21
  

 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 06:39:48 | 显示全部楼层
  
  
Fig. 10. Tension
  
  
  
Fig. 11. Tension
  
  
  
  
  
Fig. 12. Current
  
  
  
Fig. 13. Current
  
  
  




Process parameter calculation according to theoscillograms (Fig. 10-13) to the check test protocol (Table 6) gave thefollowing results.


Pulse scale 10.
Mean voltage amplitude according to Fig.10 and Fig.11:  
Ua = (23+25+28+10+26+29) х 10/6 = 235 V.
Mean current amplitude according to Fig. 12 and Fig.13:              
Iа = (20+6+17+7+10+19+3) х 10/7 = 117 A.
Pulse repetition period T = 7.4 ms.
Pulse duration t = 0.28 ms.
Pulse frequency f = 1000/7.4 = 135.1 Hz.
Relative pulse duration S = 7.4/0.28 = 26.32.
Space factor Z = 0.5/26.32 = 0.019.
Mean value of pulse voltage импульсов Um =0.019 х 235 =4.47 V.
Mean value of current in pulses Im = 0.019 х 117 = 2.22 A.



Thus, it is possible to consider that an experimentalcheck of energy efficiency of the water electric generator of heat with thehelp of two methods gives practically the same results and confirms theabove-mentioned hypothesis concerning the possibility of additional energyproduction in the processes being considered. It can be notedthat as during measurements the pointer instruments of high class of accuracyof 0.2 have been used (relative conventional gauging error does not exceed0.2%) and oscillographic measurement accuracy is much lower (usually nearly5%), the readings of the voltmeter and the ammeter should be considered as moreaccurate ones.
Commercial efficiency of thewater electric generator of heat will depend on pulse generator economies. Asefficiency of powerful pulse generators can be near unit, energy efficiencyshould not differ greatly from the data being obtained during laboratoryinvestigations for the industrial-scale plants with the use of the generatorsof heat being considered.
The analysis of energy balance of the molecules with covalent bondsshows the possibility of formation of additional thermal energy with the energyefficiency index, which exceeds unit greatly, and the experiments confirm this hypothesisearnestly.
Simplicity and hundred per cent reproducibility of the experiments beingdescribed open a prospect for quick commercialization of the water electricgenerator of heat.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-8-12 06:40:39 | 显示全部楼层
CONCLUSION



Thus, the convincing theoretical and experimental proofs of existence of a method, which reduces energy consumption for hydrogen production from water 10folds and more, have been got.

The method of conversion of electric energy into thermal energy with energy efficiency index of more than 2000% has been found.

The way of a transfer to economical and environmental friendly power engineering is opened. But it will not be an easy one. There will be a lot of work concerning optimization of the parameters of the global energy generators.




REFERENCES



1. Kanarev Ph.M. The Foundation of  Physchemistry of  Microworld (the second edition). (In Russian)  http://www.ikar.udm.ru/sb28-2.htm

2. Kanarev Ph.M. The Foundation of  Physchemistry of  Microworld. The second edition. (In English). http://book.physchemistry.innoplaza.net

3. Kanarev Ph.M., G.P. Perekoty, D.A. Bebko, A.A. Chernyavsky.  Water Electric Generator of Heat. http://kanarev.heatgenerator.innoplaza.net

4. Kanarev Ph.M. Energy Balance of Fusion Process of Oxygen, Hydrogen and Water Molecules. New Energy Technologies. 2003, Issue No. 3 (12), pages 58-62. (In English).

5. Kanarev Ph.M. Global Energy. New Energy Technologies. 2003, Issue No. 3 (12), 2003, pages 56-57. (In English).

6. Kanarev Ph.M. The Foundation of  Physchemistry of  Micro World. The second edition. (In English). http://book.physchemistry.innoplaza.net

7. Kanarev Ph.M. Energy Balance of Fusion Process of Oxygen, Hydrogen and Water Molecules. New Energy Technologeis. 2003, Issue Nr 3 (12).

8. Кanarev Ph. M. Energy Balance of Fusion Processes of  Molecules of  Oxygen, Hydrogen and Water. http://kanarev.energy.innoplaza.net/

9. Ph.M. Kanarev, V.V. Podobedov. Device for production of thermal energy and steam-and-gas mixture.

Patent No.  2157862.

10. Ph.M. Kanarev, E.D. Zykov, V.V. Podobedov. Device for production of thermal energy, hydrogen and oxygen. Patent No.   2157861.

11. Ph.M. Kanarev, V.V. Konarev, V.V. Podobedov, A.B. Garmashov.  Device for production of thermal energy, hydrogen and oxygen. Patent No.  2175027.

12. Ph.M. Kanarev, V.V. Konarev, V.V. Podobedov. Device for production of thermal energy, hydrogen and oxygen. Patent No.  2167958.

13. Ph.M. Kanarev, V.V. Konarev, V.V. Podobedov. Device for production of thermal energy, hydrogen and oxygen. Patent No.  2167958.

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15. Ph.M. Kanarev, V.V. Podobedov, D.V. Korneev, A.I. Tlishev, D.A. Bebko. Device for gas mixture production and transmutation of the atomic nuclei of chemical elements.  Patent No. 2210630.
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