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[技术] 水分解由AC电解(加里斯滕泽尔 )

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发表于 2010-6-24 13:34:03 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
信2006年8月13日
该文件 安德里亚什 Puharich :电解分解水的交流 大部分解释 我的项目。我很忙碌,我没有太多额外的时间去工作 就这点。这就是为什么它会在目前的时间相当缓慢。
2照片“内部”和“外“是我的修改 反应室。基本上,所有它的是一个有螺旋盖关闭聚氯乙烯坦克。 内装的铜管2“片,里面是一个1“铜 管。如果一切按计划进行工作,他们将会有所改变了不锈钢 钢。
一条电线焊接到每个铜管和锡 连接被封锁了有机硅。这两条线附近会出来 罐的顶部,并siliconed内外设法使 容器密封。
我也包括我的3电路扫描。有 600hz音频振荡器,载波频率为62985hz振荡器, 振幅调制器和一个将其连接在一起。
如果您有任何问题,您可以发送电子邮件我在金星 飞trap@att.net
-加里
  

上午调制器
  

音频振荡器
  

载波振荡器
  


内部查看
  


外观
 楼主| 发表于 2010-6-24 13:36:04 | 显示全部楼层
原文如下:

Letter Dated Aug 13, 2006
The file Andrija Puharich: Water Decomposition by AC Electrolysis explains most of my project. I’m pretty busy, and I don’t have much extra time to work on this at all. That’s why it’s going pretty slowly at the present time.
The 2 pics “inside” and “outside” are of my modified reaction chamber. Basically, all it is is a PVC tank with a screw-off lid. Inside is mounted a 2” piece of copper pipe, inside that is a 1” copper pipe. If it all works as planned they will be changed out with stainless steel.
One wire is soldered to each copper pipe and the solder connection is sealed off with silicone. The two wires will come out near the top of the tank and be siliconed  inside and out to try to make the container air-tight.
I also included scans of my 3 circuits. There is a 600hz audio oscillator, a 62985hz oscillator for the carrier frequency, and an amplitude modulator to connect it all together.
If you have any questions, you can email me at venus fly trap@att.net.
- Gary
  

AM Modulator
  

Audio Oscillator
  

Carrier Oscillator
  


Inside View
  
 楼主| 发表于 2010-6-24 13:44:40 | 显示全部楼层
安德里亚什 Puharich :电解分解水的交流
Dr Andrija Puharich reportedly drove his motor home for hundreds of thousands of miles around North America in the 1970s using only water as fuel. At a mountain pass in Mexico, he collected snow for water. Here is the only article he wrote on the subject, plus his patent:
Cutting The Gordian Knot of the Great Energy Bind
by Andrija Puharich
(1) Introduction ~
It is hardly necessary to weigh the value of the World Energy bank account for any sophisticated person, these days. It is grim. The oil reserves will dwindle away in a score of years or so, and the coal reserves will be gone in some twelve score years. ( Ref. 1)
This is not to say that the outlook is hopeless. There is an abundance of alternative energy sources, but the economics of development and exploitation present an enormous short term strain on the world political and banking resources.
Visionary scientists tell us that the ideal fuel in the future will be as cheap as water, that it will be non toxic both in its short term, and in its long term, effects, that it will be renewable in that it can be used over and over again, that it will be safe to handle, and present minimal storage and transportation problems and costs. And finally that it will be universally available anywhere on earth.
What is this magical fuel, and why is it not being used? The fuel is water. It can be used in its fresh water form. It can be used in its salt water form. It can be used in its brackish form. It can be used in its snow and ice form. When such water is decomposed by electrolytic fission into hydrogen and oxygen gases, it becomes a high energy fuel with three times the energy output which is available from an equivalent weight of high grade gasoline.
(Ref. 1 ) The interested reader should refer to the special issue of National Geographic, "Energy", February 1981.
Then why is water not being used as a fuel? The answer is simple. It costs too much with existing technology to convert water into gases hydrogen and oxygen. The basic cycle of using water for fuel is described in the following two equations, familiar to every high school student of Chemistry:
H2O  Electrolysis + 249.68 Btu Delta G ==> H2 + (1/2)O2 per mole of water (1 mole = 18 gms.).    (1)
This means that it requires 249.688 Btu of energy (from electricity) to break water by electrocal fission into the gases hydrogen and oxygen.
H2 and (1/2)O2  === catalyst ===> H2O - Delta H 302.375 Btu per mole of water.     (2)
This means that 302.375 Btu of energy (heat or electricity) will be released when the gases, hydrogen and oxygen, combine. The end product (the exhaust) from this reaction is water. Note that more energy (under ideal conditions) is released from combining the gases than is used to free them from water. It is know that under ideal conditions it is possible to get some 20% more energy out of reaction (2) above, then it takes to produce the gases of reaction (1) above. Therefore, if reaction (1) could be carried out at 100% efficiency, the release of energy from reaction (2) in an optimally efficient engine (such as a low temperature fuel cell), there would be a net energy profit which would make the use of water as a fuel an economically feasible source of energy .
The cost of producing hydrogen is directly related to the cost of producing electricity. Hydrogen as produced today is generally a byproduct of off-peak-hour electrical production in either nuclear or hydroelectric plants. The electricity thus produced is the cheapest way of making hydrogen. We can compare the cost of production of electricity and the cost of producing hydrogen. The following table is adapted from Penner (Ref. 2) whose data source is based on Federal Power Commission,  and American Gas Association Figures of 1970 and on a 1973 price evaluation (just before OPEC oil price escalation.)
Table 1: Relative Prices in Dollars per 106 Btu . See Appendix 1 for definition of British Thermal units (a) @ 9.1 mils/kWh
Cost Component  ~  Electricity  ~  Electrolytically-Produced H
Production   ~  2.67 (b)   ~  2.95 to 3.23 (b)
Transmission   ~  0.61   ~  0.52 (c)
Distribution   ~  1.61   ~  0.34
Total Cost  ~  $4.89   ~ $3.81 to $4.09
If we compare only the unit cost of production of electricity vs Hydrogen from the above table:
106 Btu H2  / 106 Btu El = $3.23 / $2.67, or 20.9% higher cost, H2
(Ref. 2) Penner, S.S. & L. Iceman: Non Nuclear Technologies, Vol II, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1977, Chap. 11, and  Table 11.1-2 (Page 132).
It must also be noted that the price of natural gas is much cheaper than either electricity or hydrogen, but because of the price fluctuations due to recent deregulation of gas. It is not possible to present a realistic figure.
In the opinion of Penner (op. cit.), if the hydrogen production cost component of its total cost could be reduced three fold, it would become a viable alternate energy source. In order to achieve such a three-fold reduction in production costs, several major breakthroughs would have to occur.
(1) ENDERGONIC REACTION ~  (1) supra. A technological breakthrough that permits 100% conversion efficiency of water by electrolysis fission into the two gases, Hydrogen as fuel and Oxygen as oxidant.
(2) HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, in situ. A technological breakthrough that eliminates the need and cost of hydrogen liquefaction and storage, transmission, and distribution, by producing the fuel in situ, when and where needed.
(3) EXERGONIC REACTION ~ (2) supra. A technological breakthrough which yields a 100% efficient energy release from the combination of hydrogen and oxygen into water in an engine that can utilize the heat, steam, or electricity thus produced.
(4) ENGINE EFFICIENCY. By a combination of the breakthroughs outlined above, (1), (2), and (3) utilized in a highly efficient engine to do work, it is possible to achieve a 15% to 20% surplus of energy return over energy input, theoretically.
It is of interest to record that a new invention is now being developed to realise the above outlined goal of cheap, clean renewable and high grade energy.
A Thermodynamic Device has been invented which produces hydrogen as fuel, and oxygen as oxidant, from ordinary or from sea water, eliminating the cost and hazard of liquefaction, storage, transmission, and distribution. The saving of this aspect of the invention alone reduces the total cost of hydrogen by about 25%.
This Thermodynamic Device is based on a new discovery --- the efficient electrolytic fission of water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas by the use of low frequency alternating currents as opposed to the conventual use of direct current, or ultra-high frequency current today. Such gas production from water by electrolytic fission approaches 100% efficiency under laboratory conditions and measurements. No laws of physics are violated in this process.
This Thermodynamic Device has already been tested at ambient pressures and temperatures from sea level to an altitude of 10,000 feet above sea level without any loss of its peak efficiency. The device produces two types of gas bubbles; one type of bubble contains hydrogen gas; the other type contains oxygen gas. The two gases are thereafter easily separable by passive membrane filters to yield pure hydrogen gas, and pure oxygen gas.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-6-24 13:45:11 | 显示全部楼层
The separate gases are now ready to be combined in a chemical fusion with a small activation energy such as that from a catalyst or an electrical spark, and yield energy in the form of heat, or steam, or electricity --- as needed .When the energy is released by the chemical fusion of hydrogen and oxygen, the exhaust product is clean water. The water exhaust can be released into nature and then renewed in its energy content by natural processes of evaporation, solar irradiation in cloud form, an subsequent precipitation as rain on land or sea, and then collected again as a fuel source. Or, the exhaust water can have its energy content pumped up by artificial processes such as through solar energy acting through photocells. Hence, the exhaust product is both clean and renewable. The fuel hydrogen, and the oxidant oxygen, can be used in any form of heat engine as an energy source if economy is not an important factor. But the practical considerations of maximum efficiency dictate that a low temperature fuel cell with its direct chemical fusion conversion from gases to electricity offers the greatest economy and efficiency from small power plants (less than 5 kilowatts).
For large power plants, steam and gas turbines are the ideal heat engines for economy and efficiency. With the proper engineering effort, automobiles could be converted rather easily to use water as the main fuel source.
(2)  A Elementry Introduction to the Design & Operation of the Thermodynamic Device to Electrolyse Water with AC ~
The Thermodynamic Device (TD) is made up of three principal components: An electrical function generator, Component I, that energizes a water cell, the TD, Component II and Component III , a weak electrolyte.
COMPONENT I: The Electrical Function Generator ~  See Fig 1.
Figure 1: Signal Generator Component Block ~

This electronic device has a complex alternating current output consisting of an audio frequency (range 20 to 200 Hz) amplitude modulation of a carrier wave (range: 200 to 100,000 Hz). The output is connected by two wires to Component II at the center electrode, and at the ring electrode. See Fig1. The impedance of this output signal is continuously being matched to the load which is the water solution in Component II.
COMPONENT II:   The Thermodynamic Device (TD). See Figure 2.
Figure 2: Thermodynamic Device (TD) ~

The TD is fabricated of metals and ceramic in the geometric form of a coaxial cylinder made up of a centered hollow tubular electrode which is surrounded by a larger tubular steel cylinder. These two electrodes comprise the coaxial electrode system energised by Component I. The space between the two electrodes is, properly speaking, Component III which contains the water solution to be electrolysed. The center hollow tubular electrode carries water into the cell, and is further separated from the outer cylindrical electrode by a porous ceramic vitreous material. The space between the two electrodes contains two lengths of tubular Pyrex glass, shown in Figures 2 and 3. The metal electrode surface in contact with the water solution are coated with a nickel alloy.
COMPONENT III:  the weak electrolyte water solution. Fig.3
Figure 3: The Water Cell Section of Component II ~

This consists of the water solution, the two glass tubes, and the geometry of the containing wall of Component II. It is the true load for Component I, and its electrode of Component II.
The Component III water solution is more properly speaking, ideally a 0.1540 M Sodium Chloride solution, and such is a weak electrolyte. In figure 4 we show the hypothetical tetrahedral structure of water molecule, probably in the form in which the complex electromagnetic waves of Component I to see it. The center of mass of this tetrahedral form is the oxygen atom. The geometric arrangement of the p electrons of oxygen probably determine the vectors i (L1) and i (L2) and i (H1) and i (H2) which in turn probably determine the tetrahedral architecture of the water molecule. The p electron configuration of oxygen is shown in Figure 5. Reference to Figure 4 shows that the diagonal of the right side of the cube has at its corner terminations the positive charge hydrogen (H+) atoms; and that the left side of the cube diagonal has at its corners the lone pair electrons, (e-). It is to be further noted that this diagonal pair has an orthonormal relationship.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-6-24 13:45:38 | 显示全部楼层
Figure 4: The Water Molecule in Tetrahedral Form ~

Hydrogen bonding occurs only along the four vectors pointing to the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron, and in the above drawing we show the four unit vectors along these directions originating from the oxygen atoms at the center. i(H1) and i(H2) are the vectors of the hydrogen bonds formed by the molecule i as a donor molecule. These are assigned to the lone pair electrons. Molecules i are the neighboring oxygen atoms at each vertex of the tetrahedron.
Figure 5:  Electron Orbitals ~

(3) Electrothermodynamics ~
We will now portray the complex electromagnetic wave as the tetrahedral water molecule sees it. The first effect felt by the water molecule is in the protons of the vectors, i (H1) and i (H2). These protons feel the 3 second cycling of the amplitude of the carrier frequency and its associated side bands as generated by Component I. This sets up a rotation moment of the proton magnetic moment which one can clearly see on the XY plot of an oscilloscope, as an hysteresis loop figure. However, it is noted that this hysteresis loop does not appear in the liquid water sample until all the parameters of the three components have been adjusted to the configuration which is the novel basis of this device. The hysteresis loop gives us a vivid portrayal of the nuclear magnetic relaxation cycle of the proton in water.
The next effect felt by the water molecule is the Component I carrier resonant frequency, Fo. At the peak efficiency for electrolysis the value of Fo is 600 Hz +/- 5 Hz.
This resonance however is achieved through control of two other factors. The first is the molal concentration of salt in the water. This is controlled by measuring the conductivity of the water through the built in current meter of Component I. There is maintained an idea ratio of current to voltage I/E = 0.01870 which is an index to the optimum salt concentration of 0.1540 Molal.
The second factor which helps to hold the resonant which helps to hold the resonant frequency at 600 Hz is the gap distance of Y, between the centre electrode, and the ring electrode of Component II.
This gap distance will vary depending on the size scale of Component II, but again the current flow, I, is used to set it to the optimal distance when the voltage reads between 2.30 (rms) volts, at resonance Fo, and at molal concentration, 0.1540. The molal concentration of the water is thus seen to represent the electric term of the water molecule and hence its conductivity.
The amplitude modulation of the carrier gives rise to side bands in the power spectrum of the carrier frequency distribution. It is these side bands which give rise to an acoustic vibration of the liquid water, and it is believed to the tetrahedral water molecule. The importance of the phonon effect --- the acoustic vibration of water in electrolysis --- was discovered in a roundabout way. Research work with Component I had earlier established that it could be used for the electro-stimulation of hearing in humans. When the output of Component I is comprised of flat circular metal plates applied to the head of normal hearing humans, it was found that they could hear pure tones and speech. Simultaneously, acoustic vibration could also be heard by an outside observer with a stethoscope placed near one of the electrodes on the skin. It was observed that the absolute threshold of hearing could be obtained at 0.16 mW (rms), and by calculation that there was an amplitude of displacement of the eardrum of the order of 10-11 and a corresponding amplitude of the cochlear basilar membrane of 10-13 meter. Corollary to this finding. I was able to achieve the absolute reversible threshold of electrolysis at a power level of 0.16 mW (rms). By carrying out new calculations I was able to show that the water was being vibrated with a displacement of the order of 1 Angstrom ( = 10-10 meters). This displacement is of the order of the diameter of the hydrogen atom.
Thus it is possible that the acoustic phonons generated by audio side bands of the carrier are able to vibrate particle structures within the unit water tetrahedron.
We now turn to the measurement problem with respect to efficiency of electrolysis. There are four means that can be used to measure the reactant product of water electrolysis . For simple volume measurements one can use a precision nitrometer such as the Pregl type. For both volume and quantitative analysis one can use the gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector. For a continuous flow analysis of both volume and gas species the mass spectrometer is very useful. For pure thermodynamic measurements the calorimeter is useful. In our measurements, all four methods were examined, and it was found that the mass spectrometer gave the most flexibility and the greatest precision. In the next section we will describe our measurement using the mass spectrometer.
Protocol
(4)   Methodology for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of Water Decomposition by Means of Alternating Current Electrolysis ~
Introduction ~
All systems used today for the electrolysis of water into hydrogen as fuel, and oxygen as oxidant apply direct current to a strong electrolyte solution. These systems range in efficiency from 50% to 71%. The calculation of energy efficiency in electrolysis is defined as follows:
"The energy efficiency is the ration of the energy released from the electrolysis products formed (when they are subsequently used) to the energy required to effect electrolysis." (Ref. 1)
The energy released by the exergonic process under standard conditions
 楼主| 发表于 2010-6-24 13:47:04 | 显示全部楼层
H2(g) + (1/2) O2(g)===> H2O = 3 02.375 Btu
which is 68.315 Kcal/mol. or, 286,021Joules/mol, and is numerically equal to the enthalphy charge (Delta H )for the indicated process. On the other hand the minimum energy (or usefulwork input) required at constant temperature and pressure for electrolysisequals the Gibbs free energy change (Delta G). (Ref 2)
(Ref. 1) S.S. Penner and L. Iceman:Energy.Volume II , Non Nuclear Energy Technologies. Adison Wesley Publishing Company,Inc.Reading Massachusetts, 1977 (Rev. Ed. ) chapter 11.
(Ref. 2) S.S. Penner: Thermodynamics,Chapter 11, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Reading, Massachusetts, 1968.
Penner shows (op.cit.) that thereis a basic relation derivable from the first and second laws of thermodynamicsfor isothermal changes which shows that
Delta G = Delta H - T Delta S   (2)
where Delta S represents the entropychange for the chemical reaction and T is the absolute temperature.
The Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG) is also related to the voltage (e) required to implement electrolysisby Faraday's equation,
e = (Delta G / 23.06 n ) volts         (3)
where Delta G is in Kcal/mol, andn is the number of electrons (or equivalents) per mole of water electrolysedand has the numerical value 2 in the equation (endergonic process),
H2O ===> H2(g) + (1/2)O2 (g) + 56.620 kcal  or + 249.68 Btu     (4)
Therefore, according to equation(2) at atmospheric pressure, and 300 degrees K , Delta H = 68.315 kcal/molor H2O, and Delta G = 56.620 kcal / mol of H2O =236,954 J/mol H20 for the electrolysis of liquid water.
In view of these thermodynamic parametersfor the electrolysis of water into gases, hydrogen and oxygen, we can establishby Eq.(2) numeric values where,
Delta G = 236.954 J/mol H2O
under standard conditions. Thus
n = Delta G (J/mol) / Delta Ge (J/mol)= <1          (5)
where Delta Ge is theelectrical energy input to H2O (1) in Joules, and Delta G isthe Gibbs free energy of H2O. The conversion between the twoquantities is one Watt second (Ws) = one Joule.
Or, in terms of gas volume, as hydrogen,produced and measured,
n =  Measured H2 (cc)/ Ideal H2 (cc) = <1       (6)
In accordance with these generalprinciples we present the methodology followed in evaluating the electrolyticof alternating current on H2O in producing the gases, hydrogenand oxygen. No attempt has been made to utilize these gases according tothe process of Eq.(1). It is to be noted that the process
H2 (g) + (1/2)O2(g) ===> H2O (g)        (7)
yields only 57.796 kcal /mol. Eq.(7)shows that per mole of gases water formed at 300° K, the heat releasedis reduced from the 68.315 kcal/mol at Eq. (1) by the molar heat of evaporationof water at 300° K (10.5 kcal) and the overall heat release is 57.796kcal/mol if H2O (g) is formed at 300° K. (Ref. 1)
In the following sections we describethe new method of electrolysis by means of alternating current, and theexact method and means used to measure the endergonic process of Eq.(4)and the governing Eq.(2) and Eq.(5).
(Ref. 1) Op.cit., Ref. (1) page 3.page 299ff.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-6-24 13:48:05 | 显示全部楼层
(5)   ThermodynanicMeasurement ~
In order to properly couple ComponentII to a mass spectrometer one requires a special housing around ComponentII that it will capture the gases produced and permit these to to be drawnunder low vacuum into the mass spectometer. Therefore a stainless steeland glass chamber was built to contain Component II, and provision madeto couple it directly through a CO2 watertrap to the mass spectrometerwith the appropriate stainless steel tubing. This chamber is designatedas Component IV. Both the mass spectrometer and Component IV were purgedwith helium and evacuated for a two hour period before any gas sampleswere drawn. In this way contamination was minimized. The definitive measurementwere done at Gollob Analytical Services in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey
We now describe the use of ComponentI and how its energy output to Component II is measured. The energyoutput of Component I is an amplitude modulated alternating current lookinginto a highly non-linear load, i.e., the water solution. Component I isso designed that at peak load it is in resonance across the system ---Components I, II, and III --- and the vector diagrams show that the capacitivereactance, and the inductance reactance are almost exactly 180° outof phase, so that the net power output is reactive (the dissipative poweris very small). This design ensures minimum power lossses across the entireoutput system. In the experiments to be described, the entire emphasisis placed on achieving the maximum gas yield (credit) in exchange for theminimum applied electrical energy.
The most precise way to measure theapplied energy from Component I to Component II and Component III is tomeasure the power, P, in watts, W. Ideally this should be done with a precisionwattmeter. But since we were interested in following the voltage and currentseparately, it was decided not to use the watt meter. Separate meters wereused to continuously monitor the current and the volts.
This is done by precision measurementof the volts across Component III as root mean square (rms) volts; andthe current flowing in the system as rms amperes. Precisely calibratedinstruments were used to take these two measurements. A typical set ofexperiments using water in the form of 0.9% saline solution 0.1540 molarto obtain high efficiency hydrolysis gave the following results:
rms Current = I = 25mA to 38 mA (0.025A  to 0.038 A.)
rms Volts = E = 4 Volts to 2.6 Volts
The resultant ration between currentand voltage is dependent on many factors such as the gap distance betweenthe center and ring electrodes, dielectric properties of the water, conductivityproperties of the water, equilibrium states, isothermal conditions, materialsused, and even the pressure of clathrates. The above current and voltagevalues reflect the net effect of various combinations of such parameters.When one takes the product of rms current, and rms volts, one has a measureof the power, P in watts.
P = I x E = 25 mA x 4.0 volts =100mW (0.1 W)
and P = I x E =38 mA x 2.6 volts= 98.8 mW (0.0988 W)
At these power levels (with load),the resonant frequency of the system is 600 Hz (plus or minus 5 Hz) asmeasured on a precision frequency counter. The wave form was monitoredfor harmonic content on an oscilloscope, and the nuclear magnetic relaxationcycle was monitored on an XY plotting oscilloscope in order to maintainthe proper hysteresis loop figure. All experiments were run so that thepower in watts, applied through Components I, II, and III ranged between98.8 mW to 100 mW.
Since by the International Systemof Units 1971 (ST), one Watt-second (Ws) is exactly equal to one Joule(J), our measurements of efficiency used these two yardsticks (1 Ws = 1J)from the debit side of the measurement.
The energy output of the system is,of course, the two gases, Hydrogen (H2) and Oxygen, (1/2)O2,and this credit side was measured in two laboratories, on two kinds ofcalibrated instruments, namely gas chromatography machine, and mass spectrometermachine.
The volume of gases H2and (1/2)O2 was measured as produced under standard conditionsof temperature and pressure in unit time, i.e., in cubic centimeters perminute (cc/min), as well as the possibility contaminating gases,such asair oxygen, nitrogen and argon, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, watervapor, etc.
The electrical and gas measurementswere reduced to the common denominator of Joules of energy so that theefficiency accounting could all be handled in one currency. We now presentthe averaged results from many experiments. The standard error betweendifferent samples, machines, and locations is at +/- 10%, and we only usethe mean for all the following calculations.
II. Thermodynamic Efficiency forthe Endergonic Decomposition of Liquid Water (Salininized) to Gases UnderStandard Atmosphere ( 754 to 750 m.m. Hg) and Standard Isothermal Conditions@ 25° C = 77° F = 298.16° K, According to the Following Reaction:
H20 (1) _> H2(g)+ (1/2)O2(1)+ Delta G = 56.620 Kcal/mole                (10)
As already described, Delta G isthe Gibbs function.  We convert Kcal to our common currency of Joulesby the formula, One Calorie = 4.1868 Joules
Delta G = 56.620 Kcal x 4.1868 J= 236,954/J/mol of H2O where1 mole = 18 gr.         (11)
Delta Ge = the electricalenergy required to yield an equivalent amount of energy from H2Oin the form of gases H2 and (1/2)O2.
To simplify our calculation we wishto find out how much energy is required to produce the 1.0 cc of H2Oas the gases H2 and (1/2)O2. There are (under standardconditions) 22,400 cc = V of gas in one mole of H2O. Therefore
Delta G / V =  236,954 J/ 22,400cc =  10.5783J/cc.                   (12)
We now calculate how much electricalenergy is required to liberate 1.0 cc of the H2O gases (whereH2 = 0.666 parts, and (1/2)O2 = 0.333 parts by volume)from liquid water. Since P = 1 Ws= 1 Joule , and V = 1.0 cc of gas = 10.5783Joules, then
PV = 1 Js x 10.5783 J = 10.5783 Js,or,  = 10.5783 Ws          (13)
Since our experiments were run at100 mW ( 0.1 W) applied to the water sample in Component II, III, for 30minutes, we wish to calculate the ideal (100% efficient) gas productionat this total applied power level. This is,
0.1 Ws x 60 sec x 30 min = 180,00Joules (for 30 min.). The total gas production at ideal 100% efficiencyis 180 J/10.5783 J/cc = 17.01 cc H2O (g)
We further wish to calculate howmuch hydrogen is present in the 17.01 cc H2O (g).
17.01 cc H2O (g) x 0.666H2 (g) = 11.329 cc H2(g)                         (14)
17.01 cc H2O (g) x 0.333(1/2)O2 (g) = 5.681 cc (1/2) O2 (g)
Against this ideal standard of efficiencyof expected gas production, we must measure the actual amount of gas producedunder:  (1) Standard conditions as defined above, and (2) 0.1 Ws powerapplied over 30 minutes. In our experiments, the mean amount of H2and (1/2)O2 produced, as measured on precision calibrated GC,and MS machines in two different laboratories, where SE is +/- 10%, is,
Measured Mean = 10.80 cc H2(g)
Measured Mean = 5.40 cc (1/2) cc(1/2)O2 (g)
Total Mean =  16.20 cc H2O(g)
The ratio, n, between the ideal yield,and measured yield,
Measured H2 (g) / IdealH2 (g) = 10.80 cc / 11.33 cc =  91.30%
(6) Alternative Methodology forCalculating Efficiency Based on the Faraday Law of Electrochemistry ~
This method is based on the numberof electrons that must be removed, or added to decompose, or form one moleof, a substance of valence one. In water H2O, one mole has thefollowing weight:
H = 1.008 gr /mol
H = 1.008 gr /mol
O = 15.999 gr/mol
Thus, 1 mol H2O = 18.015gr/mol
For a unvalent substance one grammole contains 6.022 x 10-23 electrons = N = Avogadro's Number.If the substance is divalent, trivalent, etc., N is multiplied by the numberof the valence. Water is generally considered to be of valence two.
At standard temperature and pressure(STP) one mole of a substance contains 22.414 cc, where Standard temperatureis 273.15° K =  0° C = T . Standard Pressure is one atmosphere= 760 mm Hg = P.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-6-24 13:49:26 | 显示全部楼层
One Faraday (1F) is 96,485Coulombs per mole (univalent).
One Coulomb (C) is defined as:
1 N / 1 F = 6.122 x1023  Electrons / 96,485 C = one C
The flow of one C/second = one Ampere.
One C x one volt = one Joule second(Js).
One Ampere per second @ one volt= one Watt = one Joule.
In alternating current, when amps(I) and Volts (E) are expressed in root mean squares (rms), their productis Power.
P = IE watts.
With these basic definitions we cannow calculate efficiency of electrolysis of water by the method of Faradayis electrochemistry.
The two-electron model of water requires2 moles of electrons for electrolysis (2 x 6.022 x 1023 ), ortwo Faraday quantities (2 x 96,485 = 192,970 Coulombs).
The amount of gas produced will be:
H2 = 22,414 cc /mol atSTP
(1/2)O2 = 11,207 cc /mol at STP
Gases = 33.621 cc / mol H2O(g)
The number of coulombs required toproduce one cc of gases by electrolysis of water:
193,970 C / 33621 C =  5.739567C per cc gases.
Then, 5,739 C /cc /sec = 5.739 amp/sec/cc.How many cc of total gases will be produced by 1 A/sec?
0.1742291709 cc.
How many cc of total gases will beproduced by 1 A/min ?
10.45375 cc/min
What does this represent as the gasesH2 and O2 ?
(1/2)O2 = 3.136438721cc/Amp/min.
H2 = 6.2728 cc/Amp /min.
We can now develop a Table for valuesof current used in some of our experiments,and disregarding the voltageas is done conventionally.
I.  Calculations for 100 mAper minute:
Total Gases = 1.04537 cc/min
H2 =  0.6968 cc/min
(1/2)O2 =  0.3484cc/min
30 min. H2 = 20.9054cc/ 30 minutes
II. Calculations for 38 mA per minute:
Total Gases = 0.3972 cc/ 30 minutes
H2 = 0.2645 cc/min
(1/2)O2 = 0.1323 cc/min
30 min. H2 = 7.9369 cc/min
III.  Calculations for 25mAper minute:
30 min. H2 = 5.2263 cc/minute
(7)  Conclusion ~
Figure 6 and 7 [not available] showtwo of the many energy production systems that may be configured to includerenewable sources and the present electrolysis technique. Figure 6 showsa proposed photovoltaic powered system using a fuel cell as the primarybattery. Assuming optimum operating conditions using  0.25 watt secondsof energy from the photovoltaic array would enable  0.15 watt secondsto be load.
Figure 7 depicts several renewablesources operating in conjuncction with the electrolysis device to providemotive power for an automobile.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-6-24 13:51:02 | 显示全部楼层
US Patent # 4,394,230
Method & Apparatus for SplittingWater Molecules
Henry K. Puharich
(July 19, 1983)
Abstract ~
Disclosed herein is a new and improvedthermodynamic device to produce hydrogen gas and oxygen gas from ordinarywater molecules or from seawater at normal temperatures and pressure. Alsodisclosed is a new and improved method for electrically treating watermolecules to decompose them into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas at efficiencylevels ranging between approximately 80-100%. The evolved hydrogen gasmay be used as a fuel; and the evolved oxygen gas may be used as an oxidant.
Inventors:  Puharich; HenryK. (Rte. 1, Box 97, Delaplane, VA 22025)
Appl. No.:  272277   ~  Filed:  June 10, 1981
Current U.S. Class: 205/341; 204/229.5;204/260; 204/263; 204/266; 205/628
Intern'l Class:  C25B 001/04;C25B 001/10; C25B 009/04
Field of Search:  204/129,228,260,263,266
References Cited [Referenced By]~ U.S. Patent Documents:
3,563,246 Feb., 1971 ~ Puharich331/47.
3,726,762 Apr., 1973  ~ Puharich128/422.
4,107,008 Aug., 1978  ~ Horvath204/129.
Primary Examiner: Andrews; R. L.    ~   Attorney, Agent or Firm: Mandeville and Schweitzer
Description ~
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The scientific community has longrealized that water is an enormous natural energy resource, indeed an inexhaustiblesource, since there are over 300 million cubic miles of water on the earth'ssurface, all of it a potential source of hydrogen for use as fuel. In fact,more than 100 years ago Jules Verne prophesied that water eventually wouldbe employed as a fuel and that the hydrogen and oxygen which constituteit would furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light.
Water has been split into its constituentelements of hydrogen and oxygen by electrolytic methods, which have beenextremely inefficient, by thermochemical extraction processes called thermochemicalwater-splitting, which have likewise been inefficient and have also beeninordinately expensive, and by other processes including some employingsolar energy. In addition, artificial chloroplasts imitating the naturalprocess of photosynthesis have been used to separate hydrogen from waterutilizing complicated membranes and sophisticated artificial catalysts.However, these artificial chloroplasts have yet to produce hydrogen atan efficient and economical rate.
These and other proposed water splittingtechniques are all part of a massive effort by the scientific communityto find a plentiful, clean, and inexpensive source of fuel. While noneof the methods have yet proved to be commercially feasible, they all sharein common the known acceptability of hydrogen gas as a clean fuel, onethat can be transmitted easily and economically over long distances andone which when burned forms water.
SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION
In classical quantum physical chemistry,the water molecule has two basic bond angles, one angle being 104°,and the other angle being 109°28'.
The present invention involves amethod by which a water molecule can be energized by electrical means soas to shift the bond angle from the 104°.degree. configuration to the109°.degree.28' tetrahedral geometrical configuration.
An electrical function generator(Component 1) is used to produce complex electrical wave form frequencieswhich are applied to, and match the complex resonant frequencies of thetetrahedral geometrical form of water.
It is this complex electrical waveform applied to water which is contained in a special thermodynamic device(Component II) which shatters the water molecule by resonance into itscomponent molecules --- hydrogen and oxygen.
The hydrogen, in gas form, may thenbe used as fuel; and oxygen, in gas form is used as oxidant. For example,the thermodynamic device of the present invention may be used as a hydrogenfuel source for any existing heat engine --- such as, internal combustionengines of all types, turbines, fuel cell, space heaters, water heaters,heat exchange systems, and other such devices. It can also be used forthe desalinization of sea water, and other water purification purposes.It can also be applied to the development of new closed cycle heat engineswhere water goes in as fuel, and water comes out as a clean exhaust.
For a more complete understandingof the present invention and for a greater appreciation of its attendantadvantages, reference should be made to the following detailed descriptiontaken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagramillustrating the electrical function generator, Component I, employed inthe practice of the present invention;



FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of the apparatus of the present invention, including a cross sectional representation of the thermodynamic device, Component II;


FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of Component III of the present invention, the water cell section of Component II;


FIG. 4 is an illustration of the hydrogen covalent bond;

 楼主| 发表于 2010-6-24 13:52:01 | 显示全部楼层

FIG. 4A is an illustration of the hydrogen bond angle;


FIG. 4B is an illustration of hybridized and un-hybridized orbitals;
  


FIG. 4C is an illustration of the geometry of methane ammonia and water molecules;


FIG. 5 is an illustration of an amplitude modulated carrier wave;


FIG. 6 is an illustration of a ripple square wave;
FIG. 6 A is an illustration of unipolar pulses;
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