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[技术] 空气中水份的回收

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发表于 2013-5-8 17:50:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 baby 于 2013-5-8 17:52 编辑

  导言〜   Humans must drink about a gallon of water every day to remain alive. 人类必须喝大约一加仑水,每天仍然活着。 Modern urbanites easily consume 100 gal/day  by bathing, laundering, and watering lawns, etc. If groundwater or rain is not available, there are several little-known alternative methods to obtain fresh water by condensing atmosphere humidity.现代都市人很容易消耗100加仑/每天洗澡,洗钱,和灌溉草坪等,如果地下水或雨水无法使用,有几个鲜为人知的替代方法,以获取淡水冷凝的气氛中湿度。 We live in a dilute ocean of aerial moisture.我们生活在一个稀的海洋,空中的水分。 There are also real "sky rivers" full of fresh water from which we can draw.也有真正的“天空三河” ,充满了食水从其中我们可以借鉴。   In 1993, Reginald E. Newell (MIT), et al ., found 10 huge filamentary structures that are the preferable pathways of water vapor movement in the troposphere (the lower 10-20 km of the atmosphere) with flow rates of about 165 million kilograms of water per second.在1993年, ( Reginald e.纽维尔(麻省理工学院) , 等人 ,发现10个巨大的丝状结构,是最好的途径,水汽运动在对流层(下10-20公里的大气层)与流率约1.65亿公斤水每秒。 These "atmospheric rivers" are bands from 200 to 480 miles wide and up to 4,800 miles long, between 1-2 kilometers above the earth.这些“大气三河”是阶由200至480英里宽和高达4800英里长, 1-2公里之间的地球上空。 They transport about 70% of the fresh water from the equator to the midlatitudes, are of great importance in determining the location and amount of winter rainfall on coastlines.他们运输约70 %的食水从赤道向中纬度,是非常重要的在确定的位置和数量冬季降水对海岸线。 (Ref 1) (参1 )   According to Newell, "A typical flow in [the] South American tropospheric river is very close to that in the Amazon (about 165 x 106 kg sec -1 ). There are typically five rivers leading into the middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere and four or five leading into the Northern Hemisphere. The rivers persist for 10 days or more while being translated generally eastward at speeds of 6 m/sec -1 ."根据纽厄尔, “一个典型的流量在[ ]南美对流层河非常接近,在亚马逊河流域(约165 x一零六公斤秒-1 ) ,有典型的有五条河流领导到中纬度的南半球和四次或五次的领导到北半球。河流持续10天或以上,而正在翻译一般东移的速度在6米/秒-1 。 “ (Figure 1) (图1 )   Figure 1 ~ Tropospheric Rivers: 图1 〜对流层的河流:   

空气中的水回收

空气中的水回收

  ( "Tropospheric Rivers" appear as bright white bands ) ( “对流层三河” ,显示为明亮的白色条带)   Approximately 3,100 cubic miles of water is in the atmosphere at any said time, 98% in the form of vapor, 2% in clouds.大约有3100英里立方米的水在大气中说,在任何时间,有98 %在表单中的水汽, 2 % ,在云。 About 280 cubic miles of water evaporate or transpire into the atmosphere each day.大约有280立方英里的水蒸发,或transpire到大气中每一天。 A cubic mile of water contains over one trillion gallons.一立方英里的水中含有超过一万点零零零亿加仑。 The continental USA receives about 4 cubic miles of rainfall daily.大陆美国接待约4立方英里的雨量每日。 More than 2,000,000 cubic miles of fresh water is stored in underground aquifers; about 60,000 cubic miles of fresh water are stored in lakes, inland seas, and rivers.以上的200.0万立方米英里的食水是储存在地下含水层;约6.0万立方米英里的淡水储存在湖泊,内陆海,和河流。 About 7,000,000 cubic miles of water are contained in glaciers and polar icecaps, and in Greenland.约700.00万立方米英里的水,载于冰川和极地icecaps ,并在格陵兰。 The world’s reserves of fresh water are estimated at approximately 35 million cubic kilometers, including glaciers, ground water, wells, rivers, lakes, and precipitation as rain and snow.世界上的储备淡水,估计大约35万立方米公里,包括冰川,地下水,水井,河流,湖泊和降水雨和雪。 Yet it is inadequate for the ever-increasing, largely unrestrained demands of human civilization, so that alternative sources are desperately needed.然而,这是不足为不断增加的,主要是无节制的要求,人类文明,使替代来源,是迫切需要的。 While desalination of seawater is an obvious option, as yet the total quantity produced in this way amounts to about 10 km 3 , which is only a very small percentage of the 3000 cubic km 3 consumed annually.而海水淡化是一个明显的选择,然而,生产总量在这样的金额约10公里的三 ,这是只有一个很小的百分比3000立方米, 3公里,每年消耗。   Mechanical Methods ~ 机械方法〜   It should be possible to draw water from atmospheric rivers.我们应该可以提请水从大气的河流。 The engineering problem of reaching that height is not insurmountable if the construction is done atop mountains in appropriate areas, although the rivers move about considerably.工程的问题,达到这一高度,是不是不可克服的,如果建设是做了上盖的山区,在适当的领域,虽然河流移动相当。   In 1935, the French meteorologist Bernard Dubos proposed the construction of 2,000 ft chimneys to create a humid draft from fountains at the base, ejecting it into the upper air to increase the saturation and produce rain (Figure 2).在1935年,法国的气象学家伯纳德•杜博斯提出了建设二千英尺的烟囱,创造一个潮湿的草案由喷泉,在该基地,喷射到高空,以增加饱和度和生产雨(图2 ) 。 Towers like these also could draw water directly from the air at high altitudes by incorporating other inventions, such as Oscar Blomgren's Electrostatic Cooling (USP # 3,872,917) or the Hilsch-Ranque Vortex Tube (USP # 1,952,281).塔一样,这些也可以借鉴水直接从空气中高海拔地区,纳入其他的发明,如奥斯卡布洛姆格伦的静电冷却系统(美国药典编号3872917 ) ,或hilsch - ranque涡管(美国药典编号1952281 ) 。   Figure 2 ~  Dubos' Rain-Tower: 图2 〜 •杜博斯'雨塔:   

空气中的水回收

空气中的水回收



 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-8 17:52:00 | 显示全部楼层
  ( Everyday Science & Mechanics , October 1935, p. 845 ) ( 每日科学与力学 , 1935年10月,页845 )   The recent invention of acoustic refrigeration probably could be applied for this purpose.最近发明的制冷声,大概可以适用于作此用途。 Sound does in fact produce rain at certain lakes in China's southern Yunnan province.健全的是否在事实上产生雨,在某些湖泊在中国的云南南部省。 People there simply yell for rain.那里的人根本大声喝斥为雨。 The louder they rain, the more it rains, and the longer they yell, the longer it rains!在他们的呼声雨,越下雨,和较长的,他们大声喝斥,不再下雨! This effect is possible because the air there is so saturated that sound waves can cause water molecules to condense.这种作用是可能的,因为空气中有那么饱和,即声波可以导致水分子的凝聚。   Melvin Prueitt's US Patent # 5,483,798 for a "Convection Tower" claims to be "capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water spayed into the towers to create strong air flows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the base generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water" (See also Prueitt's US Patents # 5,477,684 ~ # 5,395,598 ~ 5,284,628).梅尔文 prueitt的美国专利编号为5483798的“对流塔” ,自称为“能清洗污染从大量的空气,发电,生产的食水利用蒸发水到spayed塔创造强烈的空气流动并消除污染的空气。涡轮机在隧道在该基地发电,冷凝器生产的食水“ (也见prueitt的美国专利编号5477684 〜 # 5395598 〜 5284628 ) 。 (Figure 3) (图3 )   Figure 3 ~  Preuitt's USP # 5,483,789: 图3 〜 preuitt的美国药典# 5,483,789 :   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  Similarly, the "Vortex Engine" invented by Louis Marc Michaud (WO 03/025395 ~ US Patent Application # 2004112055) describes "A tornado-like convective vortex... produced by admitting air tangentially in the base of a cylindrical wall. The vortex is started by heating the air within the circular wall with fuel.  The heat required to maintain the vortex once established can be the naturally occurring heat content of the ambient air, or can be provided in a peripheral heart echanger means located outside the circular wall. The heat source for the peripheral exchanger can be waste industrial heat or warm seawater. The preferred heat exhanger means is a crossflow wet cooling tower. The mechanical energy is produced in a plurality of peripheral turbines. A vortex engine would have a diameter of 400 meters; the vortex could be 100 meters diameter at its base and extend to a height of 1 to 15 kilometers; the power putput copuld be in the 100 to 500 megawatt range. The vortex process could also be used to produce precipitation, to cool the invironment, or to clean or elevate polluted surface air."同样, “涡引擎” ,发明了由Louis马克米肖(禾025395分之03 〜美国专利申请编号2004112055 )描述了“一场龙卷风一样的对流涡...所产生的空气切承认在该基地的一个圆筒形墙。旋涡是开始加热空气通知墙体的燃料。热须保持涡一旦成立,可以是自然发生的热含量周围空气中,或能提供在周边心脏echanger手段位于以外的通告墙。热源为周边换热器可以废物的工业热或温暖的海水中。首选热 exhanger手段,是一种横向的湿冷却塔。机械能产生在一个多元化的周边风力涡轮机。涡引擎将有一个直径400米;旋涡可百米直径在其基础和扩大到高度1至15公里;权力putput copuld必须在100至500兆瓦的范围内。旋涡的过程中也可以被用来生产降水,降温, invironment ,或清洁或提升污染地表的空气“ 。 (Figure 4) (图4 )   Figure 4 ~ Michaud's Vortex Engine: 图4 〜米肖的涡引擎:   

空气中的水回收

空气中的水回收

  Prof. Stephen Salter (Edinburgh University, Division of Engineering) has designed a 200 ft high turbine that will spray vaporized seawater into the atmosphere and produce rain from clouds that do not contain enough moisture to precipitate.教授斯蒂芬萨尔特(爱丁堡大学,科工程)设计了一套二百英尺高汽轮机将喷雾蒸发的海水进入大气层,并出示有雨的云彩,但不包含足够的水分沉淀。 The British government has provided a grant for its construction.英国政府已提供了赠款用于自身的建设。 Prof. Salter described his invention at the 10th Congress of International Maritime Association of the Mediterranean (Crete, May 2002):萨尔特教授形容他的发明在第十届代表大会的国际航运协会的地中海(克里特岛, 2002年5月) :   "The evaporation of water from the sea surface is slow and inefficient because of the need for large amounts of latent heat and because the perpendicular component of turbulence in the air vanishes at the surface leaving a stagnant humid layer. The wind has to blow over thousands of kilometres of warm sea before it can bring rain. Saudi Arabia is dry because the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf are narrow. Chile is dry because the Humboldt current is cold. “蒸发的水从海面上是缓慢和低效,因为需要大量的潜热,由于垂直组成的动荡,在空中消失在表面留下了停滞不前的潮湿层。风已吹超过数千公里的暖海,才可以带来降雨。沙特阿拉伯是干,因为红海和波斯湾的狭窄。智利是干,因为洪堡海流是冷战。   "Calculations show that some remediation may be possible using a mechanism that can be controlled to suit local needs. This paper describes the design of a floating, vertical-axis wind turbine which pumps sea water through the humid stagnant layer and sprays it in fine droplets with a large increase in surface area. The spray release height is chosen to give time for a large fraction of the water to evaporate when mixed with air in the turbine wake. The distance from land is chosen so that residual very salty drops fall into the sea. The humidified air is likely to produce rain when it reaches rising ground. The technique allows evaporation from narrow stretches of sea with winds blowing over the fetches associated with daily sea breezes caused by rising air ashore. Narrow waters can be made to behave like much wider oceans with seasonal prevailing winds but control remains in the hands of the turbine owners." “计算表明,一些补救措施可能会使用一种机制可以控制,以适应当地的需要。本文介绍的设计,一个浮动的,垂直轴风力发电机,其中泵的海水,透过潮湿的停滞层和喷雾剂,它在精细飞沫与大幅增加的表面积。喷雾释放的高度选择,以便有时间很大一部分的水蒸发时,与空气混合,在涡轮后。距离从土地选择,使残余很咸下降落入海。增湿空气,是可能产生大雨时,达到增加地面。技术允许蒸发量从狭隘的延伸海上风力吹过去撷取相关的每日海风所造成的空气上升上岸。狭窄水域,可向行为一样,更广泛的海洋与季节盛行风,但仍然控制在手中,涡轮业主“ 。 (Figure 5) (图5 )   Figure 5 ~ Prof. Stephen Salter's Spray Turbine: 图5 〜教授斯蒂芬萨尔特的喷射涡轮:   

空气中的水回收

空气中的水回收

  
 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-8 17:53:09 | 显示全部楼层
Vortex ring generators have been invented that project stable doughnut-shaped clouds of smoke for long distances.涡环发电机已发明了这一项目稳定的甜甜圈状云烟雾,为长途跋涉。 For example, in 1942 Dr Phillips Thomas of the Westinghouse company developed a vortex gun that was intended to eliminate smoke from factories by shooting it in vortex rings high into the atmosphere.例如,在1942年博士菲利普斯托马斯的西屋公司开发了涡枪的意图是为了消除黑烟,工厂由射击,它在涡环高到大气中。 US Patent # 3,940,060 was granted to Herman Viets in 1976 for a vortex generator that could penetrate clouds and atmospheric obstacles such as thermal inversions.美国专利编号3940060获赫尔曼viets在1976年为涡发生器,可以穿透云层和大气的障碍,如热反演。 When used in combination with acoustics, electric charges and water vapor or chemicals, this invention could be adapted to produce rain.使用时在结合音响,电动收费和水汽或化学品,这项发明能够适应生产雨。 (Figure 6) (图6 )   Figure 6 ~ Viets' USP # 3,940,060: 图6 〜 viets '美国药典# 3,940,060 :   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  The "Hail Stop" system invented by Gerald Ollivier has received four US Patents (# 3,848,801 ~ # 5,381,955 ~ # 5,411,209 ~ # 5,445,321), and it is commercially available (www.hailstop.com). “冰雹一站式”系统所发明的杰拉尔德ollivier已收到4项美国专利(编号3848801 # 5381955 〜 〜 〜 # 5411209 # 5445321 ) ,它是商业可用的( www.hailstop.com ) 。 The invention is "a process and apparatus for the transformation of the internal structure of visible cloud banks to induce rainfall or snow, or to avoid hailstorms, comprising igniting explosive compositions [acetylene] at time intervals of less than 25 seconds to create sudden upward movement of energy directed to form shock waves at cloud level to modify the internal structure of the cloud banks".发明是“一个过程和仪器的改造内部结构,可见云银行,促使降雨或雪,或为了避免冰雹,包括点燃炸药成分[乙炔]在时间间隔少于25秒,创造突然向上运动能源的指示,形成的冲击波在云的水平,以修改内部结构的云银行“ 。 (Figure 7) (图7 )   Figure 7 ~  Ollivier's "Hail Stop": 图7 〜 ollivier的“冰雹一站式”服务:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  Electromagnetic Methods ~ 电磁方法〜   The great inventor Nikola Tesla published an article about "The Wonder World to be Created by Electricity" in Manufacturer's Record (September 9, 1915), wherein he claimed that, "The time is very near when we shall have the precipitation of the moisture of the atmosphere under complete control, and then it will be possible to draw unlimited quantities of water from the oceans, develop any desired amount of energy, and completely transform the globe by irrigation and intensive farming. A greater achievement of man through the medium of electricity can hardly be imagined".伟大的发明家尼古拉特斯拉发表了一篇文章,关于“不知道世界上所创造的电力”在制造商的记录 ( 1915年9月9日) ,其中他声称, “时间是非常近时,我们将有降水的水分气氛下,完全控制,然后将有可能提请无限数量的水从海洋,发展任何想要的金额能源,完全变换全球灌溉和集约化。更大的成就男子通过中等电力很难想象“ 。 Tesla invented the "Magnifying Transmitter" with which to accomplish this feat, but he was not able to complete the project.特斯拉发明了“放大镜发射机” ,其中,完成这项壮举,但他无法完成这项工程。 (Figure 8) (图8 )   Figure 8 ~ Tesla Magnifying Transmitter: 图8 〜特斯拉放大发射机:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  
 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-8 17:54:24 | 显示全部楼层
It is in fact possible to influence tropospheric rivers by electromagnetic means.事实上,它可能影响对流层河流电磁手段。 The US military certainly has been investigating weather modification since the 1950s.美国军方当然一直在调查人工影响天气20世纪50年代以来。 Capt. Howard Orville publicly stated in 1958 that the intent was "to manipulate the charges of the earth and sky and so affect the weather through electronic beams to ionize and de-ionize the atmosphere".上尉霍华德奥维尔公开声明,在1958年的意图是“操纵的收费地球和天空等影响天气透过电子束,以电离和德-电离的气氛” 。 That is being done today by the notorious American HAARP station at Gakona, Alaska, and smaller stations in Greenland and Norway.这是正在做今天臭名昭著的美国haarp站加科纳,阿拉斯加,以及面积较小的车站,在格陵兰岛和挪威。 HAARP currently transmits up to 960 KW of energy into the upper atmosphere to produce its effects. haarp目前传输多达九百六十○千瓦能源进入上层大气中产生的影响。 Increased funding through DARPA will enable the Gakona station to increase its power to 3.6 MW by 2006.增加拨款, DARPA的通过将使加科纳站,以增加其权力,以3.6兆瓦到2006年。 (Figure 9) (http://server5550.itd.nrl.navy.mil/projects/haarp/index.html ) (图9 ) (http://server5550.itd.nrl.navy.mil/projects/haarp/index.html )   Figure 9 ~  HAARP: 图9 〜 haarp :   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  HAARP (High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program) is a damnable weapon of mass destruction (invented by Bernard Eastlund: USP # 4,686,605 ~ # 5,38,664 ) that contravenes the United Nations "Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques" (approved in December 1976). haarp (高频率的活跃极光研究计划)是一种damnable大规模杀伤性武器(发明伯纳德eastlund :美国药典编号4686605 〜 # 5,38664 )表示,违反联合国公约“禁止为军事或任何其他敌对目的使用改变环境的技术“ (批准在1976年12月) 。 The treaty prohibits "the use of techniques that would have widespread, long-lasting or severe effects through deliberate manipulation of natural processes and cause such phenomena as earthquakes, tidal waves, and changes in climate and weather patterns ".该条约禁止“使用的技术将有广泛,长期持久或严重影响的,通过蓄意操纵自然过程和原因等现象,地震,海啸, 气候变化和天气模式 ” 。 The US government openly advertises its intentions in the publication "Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025" by Col. T. House, et al .美国政府公开宣扬其意图,在出版一本名为“天气作为武力倍增器:拥有的天气,到2025年, ”上校汤匙,内务, 等人 。 (August 1996) . ( 1996年8月) 。 The report acknowledges that, "The difficulty, cost and risk of developing a weather control system for military applications [is] extremely high".该报告承认, “困难,成本和风险发展中国家的天气控制系统在军事上的应用[是]非常高” 。 It justifies the effort, however, with the rationale (according to Dr Arnold Barnes, who consulted in the study) that the "opportunities to capitalize on investment militarily [are] medium/high" and the "political implications/health hazards medium/low".它的理由的努力,但是,随着理(据医生阿诺德班,谁谘询,研究) “的机会,要利用投资在军事上[是]中/高”和“的政治含义/对健康的危害中/低“ 。 (www.au.af.mil.au/2025/volume3/chap15/v3c15-1.htm ) ( www.au.af.mil.au/2025/volume3/chap15/v3c15-1.htm )   Such military programs also violate the National Environmental Protection Act (42 USC Sec. 4331a), the policy of which is to "create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony."这样的军事计划也违反了国家环境保护法( 42美国法典。 4331a ) ,政策,这是“创造并维持在何种条件下,人与自然的,可以存在于生产力的和谐” 。   During the Cold War the Soviet Union developed Nikola Tesla's "Magnifying Transmitter" technology to a high degree and weaponized it.冷战期间,苏联发展尼古拉特斯拉的“放大镜发射机”技术高度和武器。 Tesla had discovered that atmospheric ionization could be altered by low frequency radio waves (10-80 Hz).特斯拉发现,大气电离可以改变低频无线电波( 10-80赫兹) 。 The Soviets built Tesla transmitters at Angarsk and Khabarovsk (Siberia), Riga (Latvia), Gomel, Sakhalin Island, Nikolayev (Ukraine).苏联建成特斯拉的发射机在安加尔斯克和哈巴罗夫斯克(西伯利亚) ,里加(拉脱维亚) ,戈梅利州,萨哈林岛,尼古拉耶夫(乌克兰) 。 The transmitter at Riga was moved to Bejucal, about 60 miles south of Havana, Cuba.变送器在里加被转移到贝胡卡尔,以南约100公里,古巴哈瓦那。 The coordinated operation of these transmitters apparently caused the long drought in California during the 1980s by creating a high pressure ridge about 800 miles off the coast of California and forcing it to remain there for several months.协调运作,这些发射机,显然是造成长期干旱在加利福尼亚州在20世纪80年代,创造一个高压力岭约800英里沿海海面的加利福尼亚州和迫使它继续存在数月之久。 Another such "blocking pattern" that was held in position for 6 weeks caused severe flooding in the Midwest USA in 1993.另一个这样的“阻塞模式” ,这是举行的立场,为六周导致严重水浸,在中西部地区的美国在1993年。 Some investigators have claimed that the flooding was caused by an experiment involving the GWEN (Ground Wave Emergency Network) transmitters, which comprise an emergency commnication system that would be immune to electromagnetic pulse in the event of a nuclear war.一些调查人员声称,水浸所造成的实验涉及吉文(地面波应急网络)的发射机,其中包括紧急commnication制度,这将是免疫,以电磁脉冲,在发生核战争。   Since 1992, the Russian company Elate Intelligence Technologies, Inc. has demonstrated its ability to radio-control rainfall on demand over an area of 200 square miles.自1992年以来,俄罗斯公司elate情报技术,公司已表明,它有能力的无线电控制降雨对需求的面积200平方英里。 The corporate slogan is "Weather made to order".公司的口号是“天气作出的命令” 。 An Elate weather-control system is in operation at Moscow's Bykovo Airport.一elate天气控制系统在运作,在莫斯科贝科沃机场。 The New York Times (Sept. 24, 1992) reported that some Russian farmers were using the technology to improve their crops. 新的纽约时报 ( 1992年9月24日)报道说,俄一些农民利用科技,以改善他们的作物。 Elate executive Igor Pirogoff was quoted in the Wall Street Journal (Oct. 2, 1992) as saying that his company could have transformed Hurricane Andrew "into a wimpy little squall". elate长官伊戈尔pirogoff被引述在华尔街日报 ( 1992年10月2日)的话说,他的公司可以转化的安德鲁飓风“变成wimpy小飑” 。   On November 13, 1997, the Wall Street Journal also reported "Malaysia to Battle Smog with Cyclones" using "new Russian technology to create cyclones... to cause torrential rains washing the smoke out of the air".关于1997年11月13日, 华尔街日报还报道: “马来西亚战斗烟雾与旋风”以“新俄罗斯的技术,创造旋风...造成豪雨洗烟出来的空气” 。 The Malaysian government approved the plan in conjunction with the Malaysian company BioCure Snd.马来西亚政府批准的计划,在与马来西亚公司biocure snd 。 Bhd. and "a government-owned Russian party".有限公司和“政府全资拥有俄罗斯党” 。   The method of atmospheric ionization to modify weather was first patented by William Haight in 1925 (British Patent # 251,689).该方法的大气电离修改天气首次专利由William haight于1925年(英国专利编号251689 ) 。 He actually constructed two electrical rain-making towers in California.他其实是兴建两个电动雨决策塔在加利福尼亚州。 Haight claimed that the earth contains a positive charge of static electricity and the atmosphere has a negatively-charged region. haight声称地球包含一个正电荷的静电力和气氛有负面的收费区域。 Between the two is an insulating region of dry air that prevents the positive and the negative charges from combining to produce a lower temperature that would cause clouds to condense and rain to fall.两者之间是绝缘地区的干燥空气,防止的积极和消极的收费相结合,以产生一个较低的温度下会导致云层凝聚和雨水下降。 By discharging high frequency alternating current into the insulating layer, electrical contact is established between the positive and negative layers.由放电高频交流电进入保温层,电气接触之间建立的正面和负面层。 The temperature drops in the clouds, causing them to condnese and rain.气温下降,在云,使他们condnese和雨。   The technique can be adapted to produce clouds where none exist, or to disperse fog by forming clouds.该技术能适应生产的云彩那里不存在,或驱散雾形成的云。 The insulated apparatus was not grounded, so as to discharge only into the atmosphere.绝缘器具没有接地,以放电,只有到大气中。 He used a 5 kilowatt generator to produce a 150-200 KHz signal (1200-2000 meters) that could control the weather within a radius of 5 miles.他用5千瓦发电机,以产生一个150至200千赫信号( 1200年至2000年米) ,可以控制天气在一个半径5英里。 (Figures 10 & 11) (数字10及11 )   Figure 10 ~ Haight's Rain-Making Tower: 图10 〜 haight的雨决策塔:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  
 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-8 17:55:34 | 显示全部楼层
Figure 11 ~ Haight's British Patent # 251,689: 图11 〜 haight的英国专利编号251689 :   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  In September 2002, Russia's Emergency Situations Ministry announced that it had drawn rainclouds to Moscow and produced rain with a large ionizer.在2002年9月,俄罗斯紧急情况部宣布,它已制定rainclouds到莫斯科和制作雨一个大型静电。 The device was described by Mikhail Shakhramanian, the director of the ministry's research institute, as "a metal cage crisscrossed by tungsten wire [that] emits a vertical flow of oxygen ions that stirs the air and raises humidity".该装置所描述的米哈伊尔shakhramanian ,总该部的研究所,作为“一铁笼交错,由钨丝[ ]发射复合垂直流氧离子激发空气湿度,并提出” 。   Orgone & Scalar Methods ~ orgone &标方法〜   Dr Wilhelm Reich's Orgone technology is arguably effective for purposes of rainmaking, but conventional scientists categorically deny this possibility without bothering to gain the experience of etheric engineering.医生威廉Reich的orgone技术可以说是有效的为目的的rainmaking ,但传统的科学家断然否认这个可能性,而不理会获得的经验, etheric工程。 Trevor Constable, who has conducted research and development of this technology for more than 30 years, now consults with the Singapore corporation Etheric Rain Engineering Pte. ( Trevor警官,谁进行了研究和发展这种技术, 30年以上的,现在谘询与新加坡公司etheric雨工程私人。 Ltd , which has commercialized the process.有限公司,已商品化的进程。 The company's website proclaims that "No chemicals, electric power or electromagnetic radiation in any form are utilized. These natural techniques are environmentally pure".该公司的网站宣称, “没有化学品,电力或电磁辐射以任何形式利用这些自然技术是环保纯粹的” 。 (Figures 12-14) ( http://www.ethericrainengineering.info/start.html ) (数字, 12月14日) (http://www.ethericrainengineering.info/start.html )   Figures 12 - 14 ~ 数字12 -1 4〜   Orgone Engineering Devices: orgone工程设备:   Figure 12 ~ Trevor Constable & Aerial "Bull": 图12 〜 ( Trevor康斯&空中“牛市” :   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  Figure 13 ~ "Spider" Orgone Engineering Device: 图13 〜 “蜘蛛” orgone工程设备:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  
 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-8 17:57:27 | 显示全部楼层
Figure 14 ~ Reich "Cloudbuster": 图14 〜帝国“ cloudbuster ” :   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  A version of the controversial Newman Motor (Figure 15) has been found by David Wells to produce profound effects on weather by apparently scalar means, both locally and at great distances .一种版本的争议纽曼电机(图15 )已发现的由大卫威尔斯产生深刻影响的天气显然标手段,无论在本地和在大的距离。 This writer has confirmed those claims with satisfactory personal experimentation using both the Newman-Wells machine and Reich's "Cloudbuster", but these technologies cannot be recommended because they are easy to abuse, which would inevitably happen.笔者已证实这些债权与个人理想的实验用都纽曼井机和Reich的“ cloudbuster ” ,但这些技术不能被推荐,因为它们很容易被滥用,这将不可避免地发生。 ( www.rexresearch.com/wells/wells.htm ). ( www.rexresearch.com /水井/ wells.htm ) 。   Figure 15 ~ Newman-Wells Weather Motor: 图15 〜纽曼井电机天气:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  Chemical Methods ~ 化学方法〜   The technologies of weather modification with chemicals such as sodium chloride, urea, ammonium nitrate, iodates, etc., are well established, but they are expensive, unreliable, and pollute the air and water.该技术的人工影响天气与化学物质如氯化钠,尿素,硝酸铵, iodates等,都是行之有效的,但它们昂贵,不可靠,污染的空气和水。 The Dyn-O-Mat corporation (Riviera Beach, FL)  manufactures "Dyn-O-Gel", which absorbs 2000 times it weight in water.该动力学-邻垫公司(海滨泳滩, FL )和制成品“的动力学-邻凝胶” ,其中吸收了2000倍,它的重量在水中。 It is marketed as "environmental absorbant products" under brand names such as  "Dyn-O-Drought" and "Dyn-O-Storm", which are sold as as a weather-modifiers.这是销售的“环境吸收的产品”下,品牌名称,如“动力学-邻干旱”和“动力学-邻风暴” ,这是出售作为一种天气修饰语。 The company's patent application states that, "The polymer is dispersed into the cloud an the wind of the storm agitates the mixture causing the polymer to absorb the rain. this reaction forms a gelatinous substance which precipitates to the surface below, thus diminishing the cloud's ability to rain".该公司的专利申请的国家, “聚合物是分散到云一风的风暴agitates混合物造成聚合物吸收雨水,这反应,形成了凝胶状物质沉淀到地表以下,从而减少云的执政能力雨“ 。 ( www.dynomat.com) ( www.dynomat.com )   Dyn-O-Mat used a US Air Force C-130 jet to disperse several tons of Dyn-O-Gel into a thunderstorm on July 16, 2001.动力学-邻垫采用了美空军C - 130型射流驱散数吨动力学-邻凝胶成为一个雷雨7月16日, 2001年。 A company spokesman claimed that Dyn-O-Gel is biodegradable and non-hazardous, and "burns up or dissolves when it hits salts water".该公司发言人声称,动力学-邻凝胶是可生物降解和非危险性,和“烧伤向上或解散时,在命中盐的水” 。 On July 19, however, ABC News reported that a gelatinous "goo" was washing ashore at West Palm Beach. 7月19日,不过, ABC新闻报道说,凝胶状“酷狗”是洗衣机上岸,在西棕榈滩。 The substance was identified as Dyn-O-Gel.物质被确定为动力学-邻凝胶。   The most successful method of producing rain by cloud-seeding was developed by Graeme Mather after 30 years of research.最成功的生产方法,雨云层播种是由格雷米Mather公司经过30年的研究。 His breakthrough occurred with the observation that smoke from a local paper mill caused storm clouds to rain harder and longer.他的突破发生与观察,黑烟从当地造纸厂造成的风暴云雨努力和更长的时间。 Mather's US Patent # 5,357,865 describes a method of hygroscopic particle seeding with a pyrotechnic flare containing a mixture of potassium chlorate and perchlorate.马瑟的美国专利编号5357865介绍了一种方法,吸湿性粒子播种与烟火弹载有混合氯酸钾和高氯酸盐。 The formula consistently produces 40-65% more rain than unseeded storm clouds.公式一贯生产40-65 % ,更比非种子选手雨风暴云层。 His South African company Cloud Quest markets the technology.他的南非公司的云,追求市场的技术。 (www.soft.co.za/science/CloudQuest/default.htm) ( www.soft.co.za /科学/ cloudquest /为Default.htm )   In June 2003, Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej received a patent for his "super-sandwich" technique for rain-making, involving aircraft to chemically "seed" warm and cold clouds at different altitudes to make rain.在2003年6月,泰国国王普密蓬阿杜德收到的专利,他的“超级三明治”技术雨决策,涉及飞机,以化学“种子”温暖和寒冷的云彩在不同的海拔高度,作出有雨。 The king's technique can precisely target areas where the rain is intended to fall.国王的技术,可以精确的目标的地方,下雨的用意是秋天。   The pseudo-secret international program to spread "chemtrails" is the most glaring example of desparate government crimes against nature and humanity.伪秘密的国际程序来传播“ chemtrails ”是最明显的例子绝望的政府危害的性质和人类。 Contrails (the vapor trails from jets) form at low temperatures (-76° F) at high altitudes with 70% humidity or more. contrails (汽步道从喉)的形式在低温( -76 ° F )时,在高海拔地区70 %的湿度或以上。 Chemtrails are toxic formulas containing alumina and titanium oxide and polymer fibers. chemtrails是有毒的公式含有氧化铝和二氧化钛和聚合物纤维。 They are spread in grid patterns at lower altitudes with the intent to reflect sunlight and alleviate the greenhouse effect, or to control weather.他们散布在网格图案,在低海拔与意图,以反映阳光和减轻温室效应,或控制天气。 Often they include barium stearate, which serves to enhance HAARP and military radar transmissions.他们往往包括硬脂酸钡,服务,以提高haarp和军用雷达传送的安全性。 (www.chemtrail.com ~ www.carnicom.com ~ www.chemtrailcentral.com ) ( www.chemtrail.comwww.carnicom.comwww.chemtrailcentral.com )   The British Royal Air Force conducted a rainmaking exercise called Operation Columbus in 1952.英国皇家空军进行了rainmaking行使所谓的运作哥伦布于1952年。 A BBC report broadcast in August 2001 revealed that the project caused 35 deaths by drowning in Devon.英国广播公司播出的报告在2001年8月透露,该项目造成35人死亡,由溺水,在德文郡。   In 1967 during the Vietnam War, the 54th Weather Reconnaisance Squadron engaged in Operation Popeye to cause flooding along Viet Cong supply lines.在1967年越南战争期间,第54届气象侦察中队,从事运作,大力水手,造成水浸沿越共补给线。

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收
 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-8 17:58:58 | 显示全部楼层
The operation was exposed by columnist Jack Anderson in 1971, and a subsequent Congressional investigation documented many more weather modification programs.行动中所暴露出来的专栏作家杰克安德森在1971年和随后的国会调查记录的许多更详细的天气改造计划。   Fortunately, however, It is not necessary to abuse the sensitive atmosphere with large-scale high technologies that are difficult or impossible to control.所幸的是,不过,这是没有必要滥用敏感的气氛中与大型高新技术是很难或不可能控制。 There are several safe, simple and small passive methods to condense potable aerial water vapor: air wells, dew ponds, and fog fences in various preferred embodiments and combinations.有几个安全,简便和小被动的方法,凝聚食空中水汽:空气井,露水池塘,和雾的围栏,在各个首选的体现和组合。   Air Wells ~ 空气井〜   The collection of atmospheric humidity is an ancient technology that has been rediscovered in modern times.收集大气湿度是一个古老的技术,已重新找回了在现代的时代。 In 1900, while he was engaged in clearing forests in Crimea (Ukraine), Russian engineer Friedrich Zibold discovered 13 large conical tumuli of stones, each about 10,000 feet square and 30-40 feet tall, on hilltops , near the site of the ancient Byzantine city of Feodosiya.在1900年,而他所从事的在结算森林在克里米亚(乌克兰) ,俄罗斯工程师弗里德里希zibold发现13个大型圆锥tumuli的石块,每个约一万英尺广场和30-40英尺高,对山头,工地附近的古代拜占庭市feodosiya 。 Because there were numerous remains of 3-inch diameter terracotta pipes about the piles, leading to wells and fountins in the city,  Zibold concluded (albeit allegedly incorrectly, according to Beysens, et al .) that the stacks of stone were condensers that supplied Feodosiya with water.因为有无数的遗骸3英寸直径terracotta管道约桩柱,导致水井和fountins在这个城市, zibold结束(尽管据称有误,根据beysens , 等人 。 )表示,成堆的石头被认为冷凝器供应feodosiya与水。 Zibold calculated that each "air well" produced more than 500 gallons daily, up to 1000 gallons under optimal conditions. zibold计算,每个“空气,以及”制作超过500加仑,每天最多1000加仑在最佳条件下。   To verify his hypothesis, he first wrote a book entitled " Underground Dew and New Theory on the Ground Origins of Spring Water " (1906), and then constructed a stone-pile condenser at an altitude of 288 meters on Mt.以验证他的假设,他首先写了一本书,题为“ 地下露水和新理论,对地面的起源泉水 ” ( 1906年) ,然后修建了石桩冷凝器在海拔288米山。 Tepe-Oba near Feodosiya. tepe - oba近feodosiya 。 Zibold’s condenser was surrounded by a 1-meter wall, 20 meters wide, around a bowl-shaped collection area with drainage. zibold的冷凝器被包围,由一个1米墙, 20米宽,约一碗形收集的地区,排水。 He used sea stones (10-40 cm diameter) piled 6 meters high in a truncated cone that was 8 meters diameter across the top.他用海上结石(直径10-40厘米)堆高6米,在一截断锥,这是8米,直径全国首位。 It began to operate in 1912 with a maximum daily production of 360 liters.它开始运作,于1912年与最高每日生产三六零升。 The base developed leaks which forced the experiment to end in 1915.该基地开发的泄漏而被迫实验结束于1915年。 The site was partially dismantled and then abandoned.该网站是部分拆除,然后被遗弃。 Beysens, et al ., rediscovered the site in 1993 and cleaned it up. beysens , 等人 ,发现,该网站在1993年和清理了。 Zibold’s condenser has the distinction of actually working on a large scale, due to a fortuitous combination of circumstances. zibold的冷凝器有区别,其实工作的规模大,由于一个偶然的组合情况。 The shape of the stone pile allowed sufficient radiative cooling with only minimal thermal contact between the stones.形状的碎石桩允许有足够的辐射冷却,只有最低限度的接触热之间的石块。 Thus the ratio of condensation mass to surface area was sufficient to enable dew to condense within the pile.因此,比率凝结弥撒表面积足以使露水凝聚内部桩。 (Figures 16, 17) (数字16 , 17 )   Figure 16 ~ Model Reconstruction of Zibold's Air Well: 图16 〜模型重建zibold的空气,以及:   


(Photo: D. Vincon) (摄影:四万松)   Figure 17 ~ Zibold's Air Well Today: 图17 〜 zibold的空气,以及今天:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  ( Photos: International Organization For Dew Utilization ) (摄影: 国际组织为露点利用率 )   Depending on the temperature and partial pressure (p), air contains varying amounts of water vapor.根据对温度和局部压力( P )的空气含有不同数量的水蒸汽。 When the partial pressure at a given temperature exceeds a certain level of saturation (saturation pressure, p s ), then condensation occurs.当局部的压力,在某一特定温度超过一定水平的饱和度(饱和压力,磷) ,然后凝结发生。 The term Relative Humidity (RH) is the ration of the partial pressure and saturation pressure: HR = p/ps.任期相对湿度( RH )是配给的部分压力和饱和压力:人力资源=普/常任秘书长。 The saturation pressure and the carrying capacity of air increases with the air temperature and pressure.饱和压力和承载能力的空气随空气温度和压力。   When a suitable substrate is available and its temperature is below the dew point, dew can form and be collected.当一个合适的衬底是可用的和其温度低于露点,露点可以形成和收集。 The substrate can be cooled to various degrees by radiation or conduction to the ground or atmosphere, best during the night.衬底可以冷却到不同程度的辐射或传导到地面或气氛,最好是在夜间。 The process of cooling by radiation is of course inhibited during daylight hours.过程中的冷却辐射,当然是抑制在白天小时。 The process of condensation releases latent heat which must be dissipated.的过程中凝结释放的潜热,必须完全消退。   With such principles in mind, the Belgian inventor Achille Knapen built an air well on a 600-foot high hill at Trans-en-Provence in France.与这些原则在铭记,比利时发明家阿希尔knapen建成了空气,以及对600英尺高的小山上,在跨-普罗旺斯在法国。 The construction of his "Puits Aerien" took him 18 months to complete (July 1930-December 1931).建设他的“井,泉aerien ”了他18个月完成( 1930年7月- 1931年12月) 。 It still stands today, albeit in dilapidated condition.它仍然屹立今天,尽管在破旧的条件。 The unique structure was described in Popular Mechanics Magazine , thus:独特的结构,描述了在大众机械师杂志 ,因此:   "The tower... is about 45 feet tall. The walls are from 8 to 10 feet thick to prevent the heat radiation from the ground from influencing the inside temperature. It is estimated that the aerial well will yield 7,500 gallons of water per 900 square feet of condensation surface."  (Figures 18-22)(Ref. 2) “塔… …是约45英尺高。墙壁是从8日至10日三尺,以防止热辐射从地面,从影响内的温度,据估计,空中,以及将产生七五○○加仑水每900平方英尺凝结表面。 “ (数字, 18日至22日) (见2 )   Figure 18 ~ Knapen's Air Well: 图18 〜 knapen的空气,以及:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  Figure 19 ~ Knapen's USP # 1,816,592: 图19 〜 knapen的美国药典# 1,816,592 :   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  Figure 20 ~ Knapen's Air Well, Improved: 图20 〜 knapen的空气好,改善:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  Figure 21 ~ Knapen's Wall-Attached Air Well: 图21 〜 knapen的墙重视空气,以及:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  Figure 22 ~ Knapen's "Puit Aerien" Today: 图22 〜 knapen的“ puit aerien ”今天:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  
  
 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-8 17:59:54 | 显示全部楼层
[ Photo: International Organization For Dew Utilization ] [图片: 国际组织为露点利用 ]   An article in Popular Science Magazine (March 1933) also featured Knapen's air well and included these details of its construction:一篇文章,在科普杂志 ( 1933年3月)还精选knapen的空气好,这些细节包括它的建设:   "[The air well has] a mushroom-like inner core of concrete, pierced with numerous ducts for the circulation of air; and a central pipe with its upper opening above the top of the outer dome. “ [空气,以及已]蘑菇一样的内核混凝土,戳穿了无数的管道为空气流通;和一个中央管,其上开放上述上方的外圆顶。   "At night, cold air pours down the central pipe and circulates through the core... By morning the whole inner mass is so thoroughly chilled that it will maintain its reduced temperature for a good part of the day. The well is now ready to function. “在夜间,冷空气注入了下来,中央管和流通,通过核心...由上午整个党内的群众是如此彻底冷冻,它将保持其降低温度有一个良好的一部分,一天。以及现在准备功能。   "Warm, moist outdoor air enters the central chamber, as the daytime temperature rises, through the upper ducts in the outer wall. It immediately strikes the chilled core, which is studded with rows of slates to increase the cooling surface. The air, chilled by the contact, gives up its moisture upon the slates. As it cools, it gets heavier and descends, finally leaving the chamber by way of the lower ducts. Meanwhile the moisture trickles from the slates and falls into a collecting basin at the bottom of the well." “温暖,潮湿的室外空气进入中央会议厅,由于白天的温度上升,通过管道上,在外墙。立即**,冷冻的核心,这是studded与行的各派,以增加冷却表面。空气,冰鲜由接触,放弃其水分后,各派,由于冷却,获得重和降,最后离开会议厅的方式,较低的管道,同时水分trickles从各派和陷入收集盆地底部以及“ 。 (Refs. 3, 4) ( refs. 3 , 4 )   The structure did not perform well, however; at best, it collected about 5 gallons per night.结构没有履行好,不过,在最好的,它收集的有关五加仑每夜晚。   Knapen was inspired by the work of bioclimatologist Leon Chaptal, director of the French Agricultural Physics and Bioclimatology Station at Montpellier, who built a small air well near Montpellier in 1929 after being inspired in turn by the work of Zibold. knapen灵感的工作bioclimatologist里昂chaptal ,主任,法国农业物理和bioclimatology站蒙彼利埃,谁建立了一个小型的空气,以及附近的蒙彼利埃在1929年后的启发,进而由工作zibold 。 The pyramidal concrete structure was 3 meters square and 2.5 meter in height, with rings of small vent holes at the top and bottom.锥体混凝土结构是3米,广场和2.5米的高度,戒指,小发泄在洞的顶部和底部。 Its volume (8 m 3 ) was filled with pieces of limestone (5-10 cm) that condensed the atmospheric vapor and collected it in a reservoir.它的体积( 8米3 )充满了件石灰石( 5-10厘米)表示,凝结着水汽,并收集了它在一个水库。 The yield ranged from 1-2.5 liters/day from March to September.产量介于1-2.5升/天,从3月至9月。 In 1930, the structure collected about 100 liters from April to September, but only half that much in 1931, when conditions were less favorable.在1930年,结构,收集的有关一〇 〇升从四月到九月,但只有一半,很多在1931年,当条件不太有利。 The maximum yield was 5.5 lb/day.最高产量是5.5磅/天。 Accordingly, a pyramid with 2,500 cubic meters volume would furnish about 600 liters/day.因此,金字塔与二五○○立方米货量将提供约600升/天。   Chaptal found that the condensing surface must be rough, and the surface tension sufficiently low that the condensed water can drip. chaptal发现,冷凝表面必须粗糙,表面张力足够低,该冷凝水可滴灌。 The incoming air must be moist and damp.新任的空气,必须在潮湿和潮湿。 The low interior temperature is established by reradiation at night and by the lower temperature of the soil.低,内部温度,建立了reradiation在夜间和由较低温度的土壤。 Air flow was controlled by plugging or opening the vent holes as necessary.空气流量控制,堵塞或打开通风口洞作为必要的。 (Ref. 5)(Figure 23) (见5 ) (图23 )   Figure 23 ~ Chaptal's Air Well: 图23 〜 chaptal的空气,以及:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  The German-Australian researcher Wolf Klaphake tested several forms of airwells in Yugoslavia and on Vis Island (Croatia) in the Adriatic Sea during the 1920s and 30s.在德国,澳大利亚研究员狼来了klaphake测试的几种形式airwells在南斯拉夫和关于对岛屿(克罗地亚)在亚得里亚海在20世纪20年代和30多岁。 Klaphake began to study air wells after he read the works of Maimonides, a Spaniard who wrote in the Arabic language about 1,000 years ago. klaphake开始研究空气井后,他读的作品,迈蒙尼德,西班牙谁写在阿拉伯语的约1000年前。 In his description of Palestine, Maimonides mentions the use of water condensers there.在他的描述,巴勒斯坦,迈蒙尼德提到使用水冷凝器。 Klaphake summarized his own experiments as follows: klaphake总结了他自己的实验如下:   "A better method consisted in selecting a mountain slope, smoothing it with cementitious or other material apt to make the surface watertight, and covering it with an insulating material, so that the cover formed over the area a canopy or roof which was supported by pillars or ridges. The sides of the canopy were closed, whereas the upper and lower ends were left open by constructing holes or vents to allow the air to pass under the roof. This construction proved to be very successful, as the cooling surface of the inner part was highly effective. The disadvantage was that the structure was very expensive, and so a return was made to the block house type. “更好的方法构成在选择山坡地,平滑,它与水泥或其他材料容易使表面防水,包括它与绝缘材料,使封面形成了该地区檐篷或屋顶被支持的支柱或山脊。两旁的檐篷被封闭,而上,下两端分别为左开放建设孔或通风口,让空气通过屋檐下,这建筑被证明是非常成功的,作为冷却表面的内在一部分是非常有效的。不利的是,该结构是非常昂贵,所以返回了整内务类型。   
 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-8 18:01:05 | 显示全部楼层
"Many types of building were tried, but that finally adopted was a sugarloaf-shaped building, about 50 ft high, with walls at least 6 ft thick, with holes on the top and at the bottom, the inner surface being enlarged by a network of walls of a material with great surface. The outer wall is made of concrete to be able to take up a great amount of thermal units, the inner surface consists of sandstone or any other porous material. The building produces water during the day and cools itself during the night; when the sun rises, the warm air is drawn through the upper holes into the building by the out-flowing cooler air, becomes cooled on the cold surface, deposits its water, which then oozes down and is collected somewhere underneath. It is wrong to think that this process works only on days with dew, as the inner surface becomes much cooler than one should expect. In Dalmatia, that day was a rare exception which failed to produce water. “许多类型的建设被审判,但最后通过的是一个sugarloaf形建筑,约有50英尺高,与墙壁至少六英尺厚,与孔的上方和下方,内表面正在扩大,由一个网络墙体的材料与伟大的表面。外墙是混凝土,以便能够承担了大量的热量单位,内表面构成的砂岩或任何其他多孔材料。建筑产生的水在白天和冷却本身在夜间,当太阳升起,暖空气是通过制定上洞进入建设由出流凉空气,冷却就成为冷战表面上看,存款,其水,然后oozes下来,是收集的某处下。这是错误的认为,这个过程仅适用于天与露水,由于内表面变得更为寒冷,比1应该期望,在达尔马提亚,这一天是一个罕见的例外,其中未能出示水。   "The essential principle in obtaining water from the air has thus been shown to be --- a great water condensing surface which must be well protected against the heat of the sun and at the same time it is necessary that the air should pass to the condensing surface slowly, in order that it may cool properly and so deposit its water. The conclusion of this is --- that a big heap of stones would do the same thing as the above-described buildings." “的基本原则,在取得水从空气中已被证明是---伟大的冷凝水的表面,必须得到妥善保护,不受热的太阳,在同一时间,这是有必要的空气应该通过向冷凝表面缓慢,在秩序,它可能冷静,妥善,所以交存其水。结论---这是一个很大的一堆石头会做同样的事情,作为上述所描述的建筑物“ 。 (Ref. 6) (见6 )   Oleg Bernikov received Russian Patent # 2,190,448 for an "Independent Complex for Separating Moisture from Air", for use near seas.奥列别尔尼科夫收到俄罗斯专利编号2190448 ,为一个“独立的复杂分离水分,空气” ,用于附近公海。 The construction contains two levels of pebbles separated by a water-permeable floor.建设包含两个层面的卵石相隔一水渗透楼。 Wet air is pumped from the surface through intake pipes into low-pressure cavities in the pebble beds created by sun-heated suction pipes.湿空气是泵浦从表面通过进水口管道进入低气压洞穴中的卵石床所造成的太阳炽热的吸力管道。 Moisture settles on the pebbles and drains into a reservoir.水分下来,对卵石及排水渠成的水库。 Bernikov states that "Because the floor is constantly wet, it reduces the temperature of the lower level of pebbles to and below the dew point, which results in intensive backflow of moisture into the water collector."别尔尼科夫国“ ,因为楼是不断湿,降低温度较低水平卵石和低于露点,结果在密集的回流水分入水收藏家” 。 (Figure 24) (图24 )   Figure 24 ~ Bernikov's Russian Patent # 2,190,448: 图24 〜别尔尼科夫的俄罗斯专利编号2190448 :   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  Two main forms of dew condensers have been developed.两个主要形式的露点冷凝器已开发。 The first is characterized as massive (such as the designs by Klaphake and Zibold), which maintain a fairly constant temperature by producing very high specific heat.第一是定性为大规模的(如设计,由klaphake和zibold ) ,其中维持一个相当稳定的温度,制作非常高的具体热。 Modern research conducted by the non-profit International Organization For Dew Utilization(OPUR), however, shows that the best materials for the collection of atmospheric humidity should be light weight, thermally insulated radiative condensers that radiate heat quickly.现代研究中所进行的非营利性国际组织的露点利用 ( opur ) ,但表明,最好的材料收集大气湿度应该是重量轻,热绝缘的辐射冷凝器表示,辐射热迅速。 Such materials were not widely available until recently.这种材料被广泛使用的不是,直到最近。   Nikolayev, et al. , have shown that for massive dew collectors, which "produce very high specific heat to maintain their temperature as constant as possible despite latent condensation heat levels" (2500 Joules per gram at 20° C), and "taking into account the different exchanges between the found and the atmosphere... the yield decreases dramatically when the mass to surface ratio increases". (Ref. 7)   Natural radiative cooling is limited to between 25 and 150 W/m 2 at night. After compensating for latent condensation heat, the ideal maximum yield could not be over 1 liter per sq. m. One acre could produce several hundred gallons each night. Thus, according to D. Beysens, et al ., the ideal dew collector would be a "radiative aerial condenser" such as developed by M. Nilsson, who has tested a polyethylene film containing micro-particles of titanium oxide that produces 100 ml/day on 1.44 sq. m. (Ref. 8-12)   OPUR has developed a commercial model (CRSQ-250) that is available in a portable kit which includes a foldable condenser, operating manual, a computer program for data recording, and 30-days technical assistance. Beysens, et al. , have constructed an experimental radiative aerial foil dew collector (10 x 3 m at a 30° angle) at the Vignola laboratory of the University of Corsica. The collector faces west to allow dew recovery during the early morning, at which time atmospheric temperature is closest to the dew point. The system collected 0.1-0.4 liters/m 2 . from July-December 2000. (Figure 25)   Figure 25 ~ FogQuest Dew Collector (Vignola, Corsica):   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  In the 1960s, Israelis irrigated plants dew condensers constructed of polyethylene. A similar method was developed in the 1980s using specially prepared foil condensers to irrigate saplings. (Refs. 13, 14)   In the Sahara Desert there exist many miles of ancient underground passages called "foggaras" that have been dug into the sides of mountains. The tunnels connect with the surface through an air vent every 75 feet or so, serving to collect humidity and seepage. Similar excavations exist in Afghanistan, and have served to hide the movement of troops from observation by Soviets and Americans.   In 1982, Calice Courneya patented an underground air well (USP # 4,351,651) that employs the same principle of using the ground as a heat sink:   "The air well is buried about 9 feet deep. The entrance pipe is 3-inch diameter PVC pipe (10 ft long), terminating just near the ground... This is an advantage because the greatest humidity in the atmosphere is near the surface."  (Figures 26 & 27)(Ref. 15)   Figure 26 ~ Courneya's Air Well ( USP # 4,351,651 ):   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  Figure 27 ~ Courneya's Air Well:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  
 楼主| 发表于 2013-5-8 18:01:53 | 显示全部楼层
In a preferred embodiment, the intake is provided with a cyclone separator to precipitate dust before the air enters the pipe. In addition, a flow restrictor device can be installed before the exit.   Air flows through the pipes at 2,000 cubic feet per hour at 45 o F with a 5 mph wind. This translates to about 48,000 ft 3 /day (over 3,000 lb of air daily). Courneya’s first air well used a turbine fan to pull air through the pipes. Later designs employed an electric fan for greater airflow. At 90 o F and 80% Relative Humidity (RH), the air well yields about 60 lb water daily. At 20% RH, the yield is only about 3 lb/day. The yield is even lower at lower temperatures.  The water collected by the Courneya air well is relatively pure, equivalent to single-distilled water. Analysis of water collected by an air well near a busy street found no sulfur or lead (measured in ppm). The yield depends on the amount of air and its relative and specific humidity, and the soil temperature, thermal conductivity, and moisture.   Acoustic resonance within the pipes might enhance condensation. The more recent invention of acoustic refrigeration could be used to advantage, as well as the Hilsch-Ranque vortex tube. Oscar Blomgren's invention of Electrostatic Cooling (USP # 3,224,492 and # 3,872,917) also is recommended for its simplicity and high efficiency. Passive solar-heated water-ammonia intermittent absorption refrigeration also could augment the yield of water in a desert environment.   Courneya's design is similar to Walter Rogers' earlier USP # 4,234,037, issued for an "Underground Heating and Cooling System", which includes a water trap. (Figure 28)   Figure 28 ~ Walters' USP # 4,234,037:   

空气中水份的回收

空气中水份的回收

  In the 1950s, the French inventor Henri Coanda designed an elegant method to desalinate water in Morocco (USP #2,803,591). He built a silo with reflective walls, mounted several inches over a tidal pool, angled so as to catch and multiply the sunlight, thus superheating the air in the chimney. The rising hot air drew in cold air from the bottom, and became super-saturated with moisture by the time it reached the top. Pure water flowed from the condensers there. The residual brine also is of great value to chemical industry and in the construction of solar ponds. The French government forced Coanda to cease operations because his device threatened their monopoly on salt production. (Figure 29)


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