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电化学实验

2017-12-30 18:11| 发布者: dymodel| 查看: 1610| 评论: 0|原作者: jjlove

摘要: 目录 简介 导体 电池 柠檬电池组 丹尼尔的Cell 的浓差电池 Volta的桩 还原电位测定 沉积电偶 结论 简介 1791年路易尔瓦尼发现电气的青蛙在他的神经活动被解剖。他认为,电力动物起源是,可以 ...
目录
简介
导体
电池
    柠檬电池组
    丹尼尔的Cell
    的浓差电池
    Volta的桩
还原电位测定
沉积电偶
结论
简介

1791年路易尔瓦尼发现电气的青蛙在他的神经活动被解剖。他认为,电力动物起源是,可以发现,只有在活组织。几年后,在1800年发现亚历山德罗伏打电通过无机可以生产手段。事实上,利用小片及铜在酸性溶液浸泡锌和布衬垫,他建立了一个电池- 第一个生产电力设备的能力。反对者们很快就预测,电力将永远不会成为一个有用的目的。显然,他们是非常错误的。电费是在我们的生活并以这一天电化学是一个标准的中心作用课程的学习。

虽然听的电化学教训,许多学生可能会觉得奇怪,为什么它是曾经发明的,如果是真的曾经有必要发明它,如果世界将好多了,不必了。随着后面小实验,我们希望实现和平这些学生之间的电化学研究。这些有趣和简单的实验可以教的学生,没有什么要求电化学的基本概念。正如你将看到,这些**许多很容易适应各种配置和每一个都可以独立完成或作为完整课程的一部分。

INTRODUCTION

In 1791 Luigi Galvani discovered electrical activity in the nerves of the frogs that he was dissecting. He thought that electricity was of animal origin and could be found only in living tissues. A few years later, in 1800 Alessandro Volta discovered that electricity could be produced through inorganic means. In fact, by using small sheets of copper and zinc and cloth spacers soaked in an acid solution, he built a battery - the first apparatus capable of producing electricity. Naysayers were quick to predict that electricity would never serve a useful purpose. Obviously they were very wrong. Electricity has a central role in our lives and to this day Electrochemistry is a standard course of study.
While listening to less** on Electrochemistry, many students may wonder why it was ever invented, if it was really ever necessary to invent it and if the world would be better off without it. With the small experiments that follow, we hope to make peace between these students and the study of Electrochemistry. These fun and simple experiments can teach the fundamental concepts of Electrochemistry without asking much of the student. As you will see, many of these dem**trati** are easily adapted to various configurati** and each can be done independently or as part of the full curriculum.
POROUS VASE - An actual porous vase made for the purpose may be difficult to acquire. It is used to prevent the quick mixing of various soluti**, while permitting the exchange of i**. For our purposes you can adapt a terracotta pot of the type used in gardening simply by plugging the hole in the bottom with molten wax and allowing it to cool. Another even more economical answer lies in c**tructing a barrier of paper. As shown in figure 4, roll the paper to form a cylinder and glue it in place on the bottom of the main container using a silicone adhesive such that liquids cannot pass between the two areas defined by the paper. A barrier of just one sheet would be too permeable, therefore use at least three layers of paper when building this device.
DISTILLED WATER - Don't use de-ionized water in place of actual distilled water. Many times water sold for use in household ir** is de-ionized rather than distilled water. Pharmacies sell actual distilled water. What is the difference? Many substances are soluble in water and a few of these substances separate into positive and negative i** in water. Generally these are made up of molecules that have ionic bonds, while non-ionic molecules remain intact, just in solution. For example, sugar dissolves easily in water and the sugar molecules remain intact as sugar. De-ionized water can have any number of dissolved substances that do not result in i**, yet are present nonetheless. Apart from this, a poor quality sample of de-ionized water can contain significant amounts of i**. On the other hand, distilled water is usually very pure - containing only actual water molecules.
WHERE TO OBTAIN THE MATERIALS - You can buy the chemicals in a store that sells chemicals and laboratory equipment. Often, this type of store is located near universities. Some grocery or hardware store are able to get you the chemicals needed for these experiments. You can often purchase copper and zinc strips at a hobby retailer or hardware store. You can also ask a firm which works with sheets of these metals for some pieces, for example a gutter-pipe firm and a zinc galvanic treatments firm. For the first trials, you can also use a piece of copper and a zinc-galvanized nail or screw.
CATHODE AND ANODE - In the course of these experiments, often I'll speak of cathodes and anodes. As you may notice, in some cases the cathode has been assigned a positive polarity and, in other cases, a negative one.  This is due to the cathode being the electrode where the reaction of reduction occurs. In the case of a battery, this reduction occurs spontaneously and c**umes electr**, so the cathode garners a positive charge. In the case of an electrolytic cell, the reduction is forced, producing electr**, so the cathode carries a negative charge.  The anode will have in each case the polarity opposite the cathode's.
SOLUTI** (IMPORTANT) - The dilution of acids is dangerous. If water is added to a concentrated acid, it can explode violently causing severe injuries. Never pour water into concentrated acid. Always add the acid to the water. If you need to dilute an acid, get help from a Chemist. When making a solution of copper sulfate or zinc sulfate, add these chemicals to water rather than adding the water to the chemical.
OTHER PRECAUTI** - Do not allow any of the chemicals discussed in these experiments to get on your hands or skin. Do not put them in your mouth or eat them. Do not breathe any vapors from these chemicals. Do not keep them in bottles or containers that could be confused with a food or drink container. Do not leave these chemicals in such a place that it might be confused with a food or drink (such as on a kitchen table or counter or in the refrigerator). Store them in a separate, controlled place away from foods and out of the reach of children. Label each container clearly with the name of the contents and as a non-food item.
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